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Uzbekistan country facts

Republic of Uzbekistan Central Asia Tashkent (Toshkent) 28,929,716 inhabitants 447,400 sq km 64.66 inhabitants/sq km Uzbekistani soum (UZS) population evolution



Russia conquered the territory of present-day Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after the Bolshevik Revolution was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic established in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land degraded and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country has lessened its dependence on the cotton monoculture by diversifying agricultural production while developing its mineral and petroleum export capacity and increasing its manufacturing base. However, longserving septuagenarian President Islom KARIMOV, who rose through the ranks of the Soviet-era State Planning Committee (Gosplan), remains wedded to the concepts of a command economy, creating a challenging environment for foreign investment. Current concerns include post-KARIMOV succession, terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.



Central Asia, north of Turkmenistan, south of Kazakhstan

Geographic coordinates

41 00 N, 64 00 E

Area (sq km)

total: 447,400 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly larger than California

Land boundaries (km)

total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km

Coastline (km)

0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline

Maritime claims

none (doubly landlocked)


mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east


mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Sariqamish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m

Natural resources

natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum

Land use (%)

arable land: 9.61%
permanent crops: 0.8%
other: 89.58% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

41,980 sq km (2005)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

48.87 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 56 cu km/yr (7%/3%/90%)
per capita: 2,113 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards


Environment - current issues

shrinkage of the Aral Sea has resulted in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification and respiratory health problems; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world

People and Society


noun: Uzbekistani
adjective: Uzbekistani

Ethnic groups (%)

Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)

Languages (%)

Uzbek (official) 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%

Religions (%)

Muslim 88% (mostly Sunni), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%


28,929,716 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 24.9% (male 3,693,838/female 3,514,734)
15-24 years: 20.5% (male 3,008,779/female 2,934,534)
25-54 years: 43% (male 6,178,921/female 6,255,715)
55-64 years: 6.8% (male 926,129/female 1,036,576)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 588,881/female 791,609) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Uzbekistan

Median age (years)

total: 27.1 years
male: 26.6 years
female: 27.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

0.93% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

17.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

5.29 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

-2.46 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 36.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

TASHKENT (capital) 2.227 million (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

28 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 19.84 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.54 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.93 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 73.29 years
male: 70.25 years
female: 76.52 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

1.8 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

5.4% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

2.54 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

4.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 80.9% of population
total: 87.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 19.1% of population
total: 12.7% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

0.1% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

29,700 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

2,400 (2012 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

15.1% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight (%)

4.4% (2006)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)


Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.6%
female: 99.2% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2011)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local long form: O'zbekiston Respublikasi
local short form: O'zbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type

republic; authoritarian presidential rule with little power outside the executive branch


name: Tashkent (Toshkent)
geographic coordinates: 41 19 N, 69 15 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (avtonom respublikasi), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qoraqalpog'iston Respublikasi [Karakalpakstan Republic]* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri [Tashkent City]**, Toshkent Viloyati [Tashkent province], Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)


1 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 September (1991)


several previous; latest adopted 8 December 1992; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet; first elected president of independent Uzbekistan in 1991)
head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since 11 December 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since 2 January 2008)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of both chambers of the Supreme Assembly (Oliy Majlis)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term; previously was a five-year term, extended by a 2002 constitutional amendment to seven years and changed back to five years in 2011); election last held on 23 December 2007 (next to be held first quarter 2015); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president; note - to present a facade of democracy, the president nominates a candidate for prime minister, who then must be approved by a majority vote in both chambers of parliament
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom TOSHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%, other 3.2%

Legislative branch

bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; members to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (Qonunchilik Palatasi) (150 seats; 135 members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms, while 15 spots reserved for the Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan)
elections: last held on 27 December 2009 and 10 January 2010 (next to be held in December 2014)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Legislative Chamber - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - LDPU 53, NDP 32, National Rebirth Party 31, Adolat 19
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President Islom KARIMOV

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 34 judges organized in civil, criminal, and military sections); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); Higher Economic Court (consists of 19 judges)
judge selection and term of office: judges of the 3 highest courts nominated by the president and confirmed by the Oliy Majlis; judges appointed for 5-year terms subject to reappointment
subordinate courts: regional, district, city, and town courts

Political parties and leaders

Ecological Movement of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Ekologik Harakati) [Boriy ALIXONOV]
Justice (Adolat) Social Democratic Party of Uzbekistan [Narimon UMAROV]
Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (O'zbekiston Liberal-Demokratik Partiyasi) or LDPU [Sodiqjon TURDIYEV]
National Rebirth Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Milliy Tiklanish) [Sarvar OTAMURATOV]
People's Democratic Party of Uzbekistan (Xalq Demokratik Partiyas) or NDP [Hotamjon KETMONOV] (formerly Communist Party)

Political pressure groups and leaders

there are no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups operating in Uzbekistan

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Baxtiyor GULOMOV (since 18 July 2013)
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador George KROL (since 10 June 2011)
embassy: 3 Moyqo'rq'on, 5th Block, Yunusobod District, Tashkent 100093
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon (closed side to the hoist) and 12 white stars shifted to the hoist on the top band; blue is the color of the Turkic peoples and of the sky, white signifies peace and the striving for purity in thoughts and deeds, while green represents nature and is the color of Islam; the red stripes are the vital force of all living organisms that links good and pure ideas with the eternal sky and with deeds on earth; the crescent represents Islam and the 12 stars the months and constellations of the Uzbek calendar

National symbol(s)

khumo (mythical bird)

National anthem

name: "O'zbekiston Respublikasining Davlat Madhiyasi" (National Anthem of the Republic of Uzbekistan)
lyrics/music: Abdulla ARIPOV/Mutal BURHANOV
note: adopted 1992; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Uzbekistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet Republic but adopted new lyrics


Economy - overview

Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country; 11% of the land is intensely cultivated, in irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities. Export of hydrocarbons, primarily natural gas, provides a significant share of foreign exchange earnings. Other major export earners include gold and cotton. Despite ongoing efforts to diversify crops, Uzbekistani agriculture remains largely centered around cotton, although production has dropped by 35% since 1991. Uzbekistan is now the world's fifth largest cotton exporter and sixth largest producer. The country is addressing international criticism for the use of child labor in its cotton harvest. Following independence in September 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. While aware of the need to improve the investment climate, the government still sponsors measures that often increase, not decrease, its control over business decisions. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence. In 2003, the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF, providing for full currency convertibility. However, strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility, especially for consumer goods. Uzbekistan's growth has been driven primarily by state-led investments and a favorable export environment. In the past Uzbekistani authorities have accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbekistani laws and have frozen and even seized their assets. At the same time, the Uzbekistani Government has actively courted several major US and international corporations, offering financing and tax advantages. A major US automaker opened a powertrain manufacturing facility in Tashkent in November 2011, but there have been no sizable US investments since then. Diminishing foreign investment and difficulties transporting goods across borders further challenge the economy of Uzbekistan.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$112.6 billion (2013 est.)
$105.2 billion (2012 est.)
$97.21 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$55.18 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

7% (2013 est.)
8.2% (2012 est.)
8.3% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$3,800 (2013 est.)
$3,600 (2012 est.)
$3,300 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 19.1%
industry: 32.2%
services: 48.7% (2013 est.)

Labor force

16.99 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 25.9%
industry: 13.2%
services: 60.9% (2012 est.)

Unemployment rate (%)

4.9% (2013 est.)
4.9% (2012 est.)
note: official data, another 20% are underemployed

Population below poverty line (%)

17% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2003)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

36.8 (2003)
44.7 (1998)


revenues: $17.84 billion
expenditures: $18.05 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

32.3% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-0.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

7.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
6.2% of GDP (2012 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

10.1% (2013 est.)
11.4% (2012 est.)
note: official data; based on independent analysis of consumer prices, inflation reached 22% in 2012

Stock of narrow money

$6.514 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$5.994 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$10.88 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$9.463 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$7.661 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.244 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$NA (31 December 2012)
$715.3 million (31 December 2006)

Agriculture - products

cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock


textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, mining, hydrocarbon extraction, chemicals

Industrial production growth rate (%)

7.1% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

$1.801 billion (2013 est.)
$1.807 billion (2012 est.)


$14.91 billion (2013 est.)
$14.38 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

energy products, cotton, gold, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and nonferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles

Exports - partners (%)

China 21.2%, Kazakhstan 15.9%, Turkey 15.8%, Russia 14.7%, Bangladesh 9.5%, Kyrgyzstan 4% (2012)


$12.64 billion (2013 est.)
$12.06 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and nonferrous metals

Imports - partners (%)

Russia 20.7%, China 16.6%, South Korea 16.4%, Kazakhstan 12.5%, Germany 4.6%, Turkey 4.2%, Ukraine 4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$17 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$16 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

External debt ($)

$8.773 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.342 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad


Exchange rates

Currency converter
Uzbekistani soum (UZS) per US dollar -
2,082.3 (2013 est.)
1,890.1 (2012 est.)
1,587.2 (2010 est.)
1,466.7 (2009)
1,317 (2008)

Fiscal year

calendar year


Electricity - production (kWh)

52.53 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

44.51 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

12.09 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

12 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

11.6 million kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

85.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

14.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

102,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

594 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

92,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

137,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

4,968 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

656 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

62.9 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

46.8 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

13.4 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

0 cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

1.841 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

115.9 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

1.963 million (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

20.274 million (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: digital exchanges in large cities and in rural areas
domestic: the state-owned telecommunications company, Uzbektelecom, owner of the fixed line telecommunications system, has used loans from the Japanese government and the China Development Bank to upgrade fixed-line services including conversion to digital exchanges; mobile-cellular services are provided by 3 private and 1 state-owned operator with a total subscriber base of 19 million as of January 2014
international: country code - 998; linked by fiber-optic cable or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; the country also has a link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable; Uzbekistan has supported the national fiber optic backbone project of Afghanistan since 2008 (2009)

Broadcast media

government controls media; 14 state-owned broadcasters - 10 TV and 4 radio - provide service to virtually the entire country; about 20 privately owned TV stations, overseen by local officials, broadcast to local markets; privately owned TV stations are required to lease transmitters from the government-owned Republic TV and Radio Industry Corporation; in 2013, the government closed TV and radio broadcasters affiliated with the National Association of Electronic Mass Media of Uzbekistan, a government-sponsored NGO for private broadcast media

Internet country code


Internet hosts

56,075 (2012)

Internet users

4.689 million (2009)



53 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 33
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 13
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 4 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 20
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
under 914 m: 18 (2013)

Pipelines (km)

gas 10,401 km; oil 944 km (2013)

Railways (km)

total: 4,230 km
broad gauge: 4,200 km 1.520-m gauge (930 km electrified) (2012)

Roadways (km)

total: 86,496 km
paved: 75,511 km
unpaved: 10,985 km (2000)

Waterways (km)

1,100 km (2012)

Ports and terminals

river port(s): Termiz (Amu Darya)


Military branches

Uzbek Armed Forces: Army, Air and Air Defense Forces (2013)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18 years of age for compulsory military service; 1-month or 1-year conscript service obligation for males; moving toward a professional military, but conscription in some form will continue; the military cannot accommodate everyone who wishes to enlist, and competition for entrance into the military is similar to the competition for admission to universities (2013)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 7,887,292
females age 16-49: 7,886,459 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 6,566,118
females age 16-49: 6,745,818 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 306,404
female: 295,456 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

prolonged drought and cotton monoculture in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan created water-sharing difficulties for Amu Darya river states; field demarcation of the boundaries with Kazakhstan commenced in 2004; border delimitation of 130 km of border with Kyrgyzstan is hampered by serious disputes around enclaves and other areas

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: undetermined (government forcibly relocated an estimated 3,400 people from villages near the Tajikistan border in 2000-2001; no new data is available) (2012)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Uzbekistan is a source country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and women and children subjected to sex trafficking; adults and children are victims of government-organized forced labor during Uzbekistan's annual cotton harvest; some Uzbekistani adults are subjected to forced labor in Kazakhstan, Russia, and, to a much lesser extent, Ukraine in domestic service, agriculture, and the construction and oil industries; Uzbekistani women and children, lured with fraudulent job offers, are sex trafficked to countries in Central Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and Asia; small numbers of Tajikistani and Kyrgyzstani victims have been identified in Uzbekistan
tier rating: Tier 3 - Uzbekistan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and because it is not deemed to be making significant efforts to do so, it was downgraded to Tier 3 after the maximum of two consecutive annual waivers; the government has identified an increased number of sex and transnational labor trafficking victims; for the first time a decree was implemented banning the forced labor of children under the age of 15 in the annual cotton harvest, but government-organized forced labor of adults and older children contines in the cotton and reportedly other sectors; Uzbekistan does not have a systematic process to proactively identify trafficking victims and refer them to protective services (2013)

Illicit drugs

transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

Largest cities of Uzbekistan

These are the 50 largest cities of Uzbekistan ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Tashkent 1,978,078
2 Namangan 432,479
3 Samarkand 319,404
4 Andijon 318,439
5 Nukus 230,020
6 Termiz 140,404
7 Navoi 129,734
8 Angren 126,962
9 Bekobod 86,266
10 Denau 69,094
11 Kogon 62,696
12 Koson 59,681
13 Asaka 56,736
14 Guliston 53,418
15 Beruni 50,929
16 Turtkul 48,908
17 Urgut 47,373
18 Kosonsoy 43,684
19 Kitob 41,938
20 Aktash 38,307
21 Parkent 35,972
22 Ohangaron 35,516
23 Kuva 33,167
24 Mangit 30,854
25 Kuybyshevo 30,117
26 Nurota 29,403
27 Muborak 29,180
28 Pskent 27,864
29 Kibray 27,750
30 Iskandar 27,636
31 Gurlan 27,506
32 Karauzyak 27,081
33 Zomin 27,078
34 Salar 26,494
35 Bektemir 26,380
36 Paytug 25,597
37 Boysun 25,050
38 Gagarin 24,856
39 Almazar 24,781
40 Gazalkent 24,610
41 Boz 23,750
42 Karmana 23,007
43 Pop 22,122
44 Yaypan 20,332
45 Tuytepa 19,985
46 Buka 19,642
47 Hazorasp 17,643
48 Druzhba 17,226
49 Maymanak 17,010
50 Dustlik 16,524