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Turkey

Republic of Turkey Middle East Ankara 81,619,392 inhabitants 783,562 sq km 104.16 inhabitants/sq km Turkish liras (TRY) population evolution

Famous people from Turkey

Here is a list of famous people from Turkey. Curious if anybody from Turkey made it our most famous people in the world list? Read the aformentioned article in order to find out.

Paul the Apostle

Religious Leader

Paul the Apostle, original name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle who took the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age. In the mid-30s to the mid-50s, he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. Paul used his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to advantage in his ministry to both Jewish and Roman audiences. A native of Tarsus, the capital city in the Roman province of Cilicia, Paul wrote that he was "a Hebrew born of Hebrews", a Pharisee, and one who advanced in Judaism beyond many of his peers. He zealously persecuted the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth and violently tried to destroy the newly forming Christian church. Paul's dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus radically changed the course of his life. After his conversion, Paul began to preach that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God. His leadership, influence, and legacy led to the formation of communities dominated by Gentile groups that worshiped Jesus, adhered to the "Judaic moral code", but relaxed or abandoned the ritual and dietary teachings of the Law of Moses. He taught that these laws and rituals had either been fulfilled in the life of Christ or were symbolic precursors of Christ, though the exact relationship between Paul the Apostle and Judaism is still disputed. Paul taught of the life and works of Jesus Christ and his teaching of a new testament, established through Jesus' death and resurrection.

Suleiman the Magnificent

Politician

Suleiman I, known as “the Magnificent” in the West and “Kanuni” in the East, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. Suleiman became a prominent monarch of 16th-century Europe, presiding over the apex of the Ottoman Empire's military, political and economic power. Suleiman personally led Ottoman armies in conquering the Christian strongholds of Belgrade, Rhodes, as well as most of Hungary before his conquests were checked at the Siege of Vienna in 1529. He annexed much of the Middle East in his conflict with the Safavids and large areas of North Africa as far west as Algeria. Under his rule, the Ottoman fleet dominated the seas from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea and through the Persian Gulf. At the helm of an expanding empire, Suleiman personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation, and criminal law. His canonical law fixed the form of the empire for centuries after his death. Not only was Suleiman a distinguished poet and goldsmith; he also became a great patron of culture, overseeing the "Golden" age of the Ottoman Empire in its artistic, literary and architectural development. Suleiman was well educated and spoke five languages.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Politician

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the 25th and current Prime Minister of Turkey, in office since 2003. He is also the chairman of the ruling Justice and Development Party, which holds a majority of the seats in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Erdoğan served as Mayor of Istanbul from 1994 to 1998. He graduated from an Imam Hatip school, an Islamic high school, before studying in Marmara University's Faculty of Economics and Commercial Sciences, where he graduated in 1981. Erdoğan was also a semi-professional footballer from 1969 to 1982. Erdoğan was elected Mayor of Istanbul in the local elections of 27 March 1994. He was banned from office and sentenced to a ten-month prison term for reciting a poem during a public address in the province of Siirt in 1997. After less than four months in prison, Erdoğan established the Justice and Development Party in 2001. From its first year, the AKP became the largest publicly supported political movement in Turkey. In the general election of 2002 the AKP won 34% of the vote and nearly two-thirds of the seats in parliament, forming the first single-party government. 45 years after Turkey signed an Association Agreement with the EU, the negotiations for Turkey's accession to the EU started during Erdoğan's tenure. Parallel to this, inflation, which had for decades adversely affected the country's economy, was brought under control and the Turkish Lira was re-valued. Interest rates were reduced and per capita income grew significantly.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Monarch

Mehmed II or Mehmed the Conqueror was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire twice, first for a short time from 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople and brought an end to the Byzantine Empire, transforming the Ottoman state into an empire. Mehmed continued his conquests in Asia, with the Anatolian reunification, and in Europe, as far as Bosnia and Croatia. Mehmed II is regarded as a national hero in Turkey, and among other things, Istanbul's Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, and Fatih University and Fatih College are all named after him.

Galen

Physician

Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus, better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen contributed greatly to the understanding of numerous scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic. The son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher. He traveled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors. Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by many ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years. His anatomical reports, based mainly on dissection of monkeys, especially the Barbary Macaque, and pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations. Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system endured until 1628, when William Harvey published his treatise entitled De motu cordis, in which he established that blood circulates, with the heart acting as a pump. Medical students continued to study Galen's writings until well into the 19th century. Galen conducted many nerve ligation experiments that supported the theory, which is still accepted today, that the brain controls all the motions of the muscles by means of the cranial and peripheral nervous systems.

Saint Nicholas

Deceased Person

Saint Nicholas, also called Nikolaos of Myra, was a historic 4th-century saint and Greek Bishop of Myra in Lycia. Because of the many miracles attributed to his intercession, he is also known as Nikolaos the Wonderworker. He had a reputation for secret gift-giving, such as putting coins in the shoes of those who left them out for him, and thus became the model for Santa Claus, whose modern name comes from the Dutch Sinterklaas, itself from a series of elisions and corruptions of the transliteration of "Saint Nikolaos". His reputation evolved among the faithful, as was common for early Christian saints. In 1087, part of the relics were furtively translated to Bari, in southeastern Italy; for this reason, he is also known as Nikolaos of Bari. The remaining bones were taken to Venice in 1100. His feast day is the 6th of December. The historical Saint Nicholas is commemorated and revered among Anglican, Catholic, Lutheran, and Orthodox Christians. In addition, some Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Reformed churches have been named in honor of Saint Nicholas. Saint Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, merchants, archers, thieves, children, pawnbrokers and students in various cities and countries around Europe. He was also a patron of the Varangian Guard of the Byzantine emperors, who protected his relics in Bari.

Aesop

Author

Aesop was an Ancient Greek fabulist or story teller credited with a number of fables now collectively known as Aesop's Fables. Although his existence remains uncertain and no writings by him survive, numerous tales credited to him were gathered across the centuries and in many languages in a storytelling tradition that continues to this day. Many of the tales are characterized by animals and inanimate objects that speak, solve problems, and generally have human characteristics. Scattered details of Aesop's life can be found in ancient sources, including Aristotle, Herodotus, and Plutarch. An ancient literary work called The Aesop Romance tells an episodic, probably highly fictional version of his life, including the traditional description of him as a strikingly ugly slave who by his cleverness acquires freedom and becomes an adviser to kings and city-states. Older spellings of his name have included Esop and Isope. A later tradition depicts Aesop as a black Ethiopian. Depictions of Aesop in popular culture over the last 2500 years have included several works of art and his appearance as a character in numerous books, films, plays, and television programs.

Thales

Philosopher

Thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition. According to Bertrand Russell, "Western philosophy begins with Thales." Thales attempted to explain natural phenomena without reference to mythology and was tremendously influential in this respect. Almost all of the other Pre-Socratic philosophers follow him in attempting to provide an explanation of ultimate substance, change, and the existence of the world—without reference to mythology. Those philosophers were also influential, and eventually Thales' rejection of mythological explanations became an essential idea for the scientific revolution. He was also the first to define general principles and set forth hypotheses, and as a result has been dubbed the "Father of Science", though it is argued that Democritus is actually more deserving of this title. In mathematics, Thales used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore. He is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. As a result, he has been hailed as the first true mathematician and is the first known individual to whom a mathematical discovery has been attributed.

Joe Strummer

Alternative rock Artist

John Graham Mellor, best remembered by his stage name Joe Strummer, was a British musician, singer and songwriter who was the co-founder, lyricist, rhythm guitarist and lead vocalist of the punk rock band The Clash, a band that formed in 1976 as part of the original wave of British punk. Along with punk, their music incorporated elements of reggae, ska, dub, funk, rap, and rockabilly. The Clash were one of the most prominent of the emerging bands in the UK punk rock scene, their second album, Give 'Em Enough Rope reaching number 2 on the UK charts. Soon after, they began achieving success in the US, starting with London Calling, and peaking with 1982's Combat Rock, reaching number 7 on the US charts and being certified 2x platinum there. The Clash's politicised lyrics, musical experimentation, and rebellious attitude had a far-reaching influence on rock, alternative rock in particular. His musical experience included his membership of The 101ers, Latino Rockabilly War, The Mescaleros and The Pogues, in addition to his own solo music career. Strummer's work as a musician allowed him to explore other interests, which included acting, creating film scores for television and movies, songwriting, radio broadcasting, and a position as a radio host. Strummer is one of the iconic figures of the British punk movement.

Selim I

Monarch

Selim I, nicknamed Yavuz, "the Stern" or "the Steadfast", but often rendered in English as "the Grim", was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. His reign is notable for the enormous expansion of the Empire, particularly his conquest between 1516-1517 of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, which included all of Sham, Hejaz, Tihamah, and Egypt itself. With the heart of the Arab World now under their control, the Ottomans became the dominant power in the region, and in the Islamic world. Upon conquering Egypt, Selim took the title of Caliph of Islam, being the first Ottoman sultan to do so. He was also granted the title of "Khâdim ül Haramain ish Sharifain", by the Sharif of Mecca in 1517. Selim's reign represented a sudden change in the expansion policy of the empire, which was working mostly against the West and the Beyliks before his reign. On the eve of his death in 1520, the Ottoman Empire spanned almost 1 billion acres, having tripled in size during Selim's reign.

Sezen Aksu

Turkish pop Artist

Sezen Aksu is a Turkish pop music singer, song-writer and producer who has sold over 40 million albums worldwide. Her nicknames include the "Queen of Turkish Pop" and Minik Serçe. Aksu's influence on Turkish pop and world music has continued since her debut in 1975, and has been reinforced by her patronage of and collaboration with many other musicians, including Sertab Erener, Şebnem Ferah, Aşkın Nur Yengi, Hande Yener, and Levent Yüksel. Her work with Tarkan resulted in continental hits like "Şımarık" and "Şıkıdım" and her collaboration with Goran Bregović widened her international audience.

Heraclitus

Philosopher

Heraclitus of Ephesus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of the Greek city Ephesus, Ionia, on the coast of Asia Minor. He was of distinguished parentage. Little is known about his early life and education, but he regarded himself as self-taught and a pioneer of wisdom. From the lonely life he led, and still more from the riddling nature of his philosophy and his contempt for humankind in general, he was called "The Obscure" and the "Weeping Philosopher". Heraclitus is famous for his insistence on ever-present change in the universe, as stated in the famous saying, "No man ever steps in the same river twice". He believed in the unity of opposites, stating that "the path up and down are one and the same", all existing entities being characterized by pairs of contrary properties. His cryptic utterance that "all entities come to be in accordance with this Logos" has been the subject of numerous interpretations.

İbrahim Tatlıses

Arabesque Artist

İbrahim Tatlıses, born İbrahim Tatlı on 1 January 1952 in Şanlıurfa, Turkey, is an Arabic-Kurdish-Turkish pop-folk singer and actor of Arabic Kurdish origin who sings in Turkish. He was born in the city of Şanlıurfa, Turkey. Tatlıses has recorded 42 albums, including notable albums such as Ayağında Kundura and Selam Olsun. He is also the host of the television programme İbo Show and is a leading actor who has appeared in several dozen films. He has directed most of the films he acted in. Also, he is a businessman involved in the restaurant and tourism businesses, as well as in construction projects in Iraqi Kurdistan. He was shot in the head in an assassination attempt in 2011.

Strabo

Author

Strabo, was a Greek geographer, philosopher and historian.

Arda Turan

Soccer Midfielder

Arda Turan is a Turkish footballer who currently plays as a winger for Atlético Madrid in the Spanish La Liga and the Turkish national team. At the age of 22, prior to the 2009–10 season, he was made the captain of Galatasaray. He is mostly known for his ball control, dribbling skills, and vision. Arda has 65 senior national caps and 13 goals for Turkey and following a successful UEFA Euro 2008 campaign, he was ranked eighth in a selection of the 100 Best Young Football Players in the World piece published by Spanish magazine Don Balón in July 2008. In January 2011, Arda was voted as the third most popular European footballer of 2009, as well as the 14th most popular footballer in the world, by the IFFHS.

Ahmet Kaya

Singer

Ahmet Kaya is a Kurdish singer from Malatya, Turkey, who died on November 16, 2000 in exile in Paris. He sang in Turkish. Some of his most popular songs include Ayrılık Vakti, Söyle, Ağladıkça, Oy Benim Canım, Birazdan Kudurur Deniz, Arka Mahalle, Kum Gibi, Nereden Bileceksiniz, Hani Benim Gençliğim, Yakarım Geceleri and Şafak Türküsü.

Luke the Evangelist

Physician

Luke the Evangelist is one of the Four Evangelists or authors of canonical Gospels of Jesus Christ. Luke was a native of the Hellenistic city of Antioch in Syria. The early church fathers ascribed to him authorship of both the Gospel according to Luke and the book of Acts of the Apostles, which originally formed a single literary work. Such authorship was later reaffirmed by prominent figures in early Christianity such as Jerome and Eusebius, although within scholarly circles, both secular and religious, discussions have been held due to the lack of evidence as to the real identity of the author of the works. In the New Testament, Luke is mentioned briefly a few times, and referred to as a doctor in the Pauline epistle to the Colossians; thus he is thought to have been both a physician and a disciple of Paul. Considered by early Christians as a saint, he is believed to have died a martyr, although accounts of the events do vary. He is venerated as Saint Luke the Evangelist within the Roman Catholic Church, and major denominations, as patron saint of artists, physicians, surgeons, students and butchers; his feast day is 18 October.

Orhan Pamuk

Novelist

Ferit Orhan Pamuk is a Turkish novelist, screenwriter, academic and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. One of Turkey's most prominent novelists, his work has sold over eleven million books in sixty languages, making him the country's best-selling writer. Born in Istanbul, Pamuk is Robert Yik-Fong Tam Professor in the Humanities at Columbia University, where he teaches comparative literature and writing. His novels include The White Castle, The Black Book, The New Life, My Name Is Red and Snow. As well as the Nobel Prize in Literature, Pamuk is the recipient of numerous other literary awards. My Name Is Red won the 2002 Prix du Meilleur Livre Étranger, 2002 Premio Grinzane Cavour and 2003 International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. The European Writers' Parliament came about as a result of a joint proposal by Pamuk and José Saramago. In 2005, Pamuk was put on trial in Turkey after he made a statement regarding the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire. His intention, according to Pamuk himself, had been to highlight issues relating to freedom of speech in the country of his birth. The ensuing controversy featured the burning of Pamuk's books at rallies. He has also been the target of assassination attempts.

Saint Barbara

Deceased Person

Saint Barbara, Feast Day December 4, known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an early Christian saint and martyr. Accounts place her in the 3rd century in Nicomedia, present-site Turkey or in Heliopolis in Egypt. There is no reference to her in the authentic early Christian writings, nor in the original recension of Saint Jerome's martyrology. Her name can be traced to the 7th century, and veneration of her was common, especially in the East, from the 9th century. Because of doubts about the historicity of her legend, she was removed from the liturgical calendar of the Roman Rite in 1969 in Pope Paul VI's motu proprio Mysterii Paschalis. Saint Barbara is often portrayed with miniature chains and a tower. As one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, Barbara continues to be a popular saint in modern times, perhaps best known as the patron saint of armourers, artillerymen, military engineers, miners and others who work with explosives because of her old legend's association with lightning, and also of mathematicians. Many of the thirteen miracles in a 15th-century French version of her story turn on the security she offered that her devotees would not die without making confession and receiving extreme unction.

Diogenes of Sinope

Philosopher

Diogenes of Sinope was a Greek philosopher and one of the founders of Cynic philosophy. Also known as Diogenes the Cynic, he was born in Sinope, an Ionian colony on the Black Sea, in 412 or 404 BCE and died at Corinth in 323 BCE. Diogenes of Sinope was a controversial figure. His father minted coins for a living, and when Diogenes took to debasement of currency, he was banished from Sinope. After being exiled, he moved to Athens to debunk cultural conventions. Diogenes modelled himself on the example of Hercules. He believed that virtue was better revealed in action than in theory. He used his simple lifestyle and behaviour to criticise the social values and institutions of what he saw as a corrupt society. He declared himself a cosmopolitan. There are many tales about him dogging Antisthenes' footsteps and becoming his faithful hound. Diogenes made a virtue of poverty. He begged for a living and slept in a large ceramic jar in the marketplace. He became notorious for his philosophical stunts such as carrying a lamp in the daytime, claiming to be looking for an honest man. He embarrassed Plato, disputed his interpretation of Socrates and sabotaged his lectures. Diogenes was also responsible for publicly mocking Alexander the Great.

Aristotle Onassis

Organization founder

Aristotle Socrates Onassis, commonly called Ari or Aristo Onassis, was a prominent Greek Argentine shipping magnate.

Lucian

Novelist

Lucian of Samosata was a rhetorician and satirist who wrote in the Greek language. He is noted for his witty and scoffing nature. Although he wrote solely in Greek, mainly Attic Greek, he was ethnically Syrian. Lucian claimed to be a native speaker of a "barbarian tongue" which was most likely Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic.

Orhan Gencebay

Arabesque Artist

Orhan Gencebay is a Turkish musician, bağlama virtuoso, composer, singer, arranger, music producer, music director, and actor.

Sertab Erener

Turkish pop Artist

Sertab Erener is a Turkish pop music singer and also a cross-over soprano with a vocal range that extends to high F. She is one of the most successful female Turkish pop singers in her homeland, and is considered one of the divas of Turkish pop music. In Europe, she is best known for winning the Eurovision Song Contest 2003 with her hit song "Every Way That I Can", although she has had many other achievements outside Turkey.

Mimar Sinan

Architect

Koca Mi'mâr Sinân Âğâ was the chief Ottoman architect and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, and Murad III. He was responsible for the construction of more than three hundred major structures and other more modest projects, such as his Islamic primary schools. His apprentices would later design the Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Stari Most in Mostar and help design the Taj Mahal in the Mughal Empire. The son of a stonemason, he received a technical education and became a military engineer. He rose rapidly through the ranks to become first an officer and finally a Janissary commander, with the honorific title of ağa. He refined his architectural and engineering skills while on campaign with the Janissaries, becoming expert at constructing fortifications of all kinds, as well as military infrastructure projects, such as roads, bridges and aqueducts. At about the age of fifty, he was appointed as chief royal architect, applying the technical skills he had acquired in the army to the "creation of fine religious buildings" and civic structures of all kinds. He remained in post for almost fifty years.

Abdul Hamid II

Monarch

Abdulhamid II was the 99th caliph of Islam and the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. He was the last Sultan to exert effective control over the Ottoman Empire. He oversaw a period of decline in the power and extent of the Empire, ruling from 31 August 1876 until he was deposed on 27 April 1909. He was succeeded by Mehmed V. His deposition following the Young Turk Revolution was hailed by most Ottoman citizens, who welcomed the return to constitutional rule. During his tenure, he was responsible for the modernization of the Ottoman Empire, and exerted maximum control over its affairs. Changes included: rationalization of the bureaucracy; the ambitious Hijaz Railway project; the creation of a modern system of personnel records; establishment of an elaborate system for population registration and control over the press; systematization of officials salaries; and the first modern law school. Between the period 1871-1908, the Sublime Porte thus reached a new degree of organizational elaboration and articulation.

Anaximander

Philosopher

Anaximander was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus, a city of Ionia; Milet in modern Turkey. He belonged to the Milesian school and learned the teachings of his master Thales. He succeeded Thales and became the second master of that school where he counted Anaximenes and arguably, Pythagoras amongst his pupils. Little of his life and work is known today. According to available historical documents, he is the first philosopher known to have written down his studies, although only one fragment of his work remains. Fragmentary testimonies found in documents after his death provide a portrait of the man. Anaximander was one of the earliest Greek thinkers at the start of the Axial Age, the period from approximately 700 BC to 200 BC, during which similarly revolutionary thinking appeared in China, India, Iran, the Near East, and Ancient Greece. He was an early proponent of science and tried to observe and explain different aspects of the universe, with a particular interest in its origins, claiming that nature is ruled by laws, just like human societies, and anything that disturbs the balance of nature does not last long. Like many thinkers of his time, Anaximander's contributions to philosophy relate to many disciplines. In astronomy, he tried to describe the mechanics of celestial bodies in relation to the Earth. In physics, his postulation that the indefinite was the source of all things led Greek philosophy to a new level of conceptual abstraction. His knowledge of geometry allowed him to introduce the gnomon in Greece. He created a map of the world that contributed greatly to the advancement of geography. He was also involved in the politics of Miletus and was sent as a leader to one of its colonies.

Julian

Monarch

Julian, also known as Julian the Apostate, as well as Julian the Philosopher, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363 and a noted philosopher and Greek writer. A member of the Constantinian dynasty, Julian became Caesar over the western provinces by order of Constantius II in 355 and in this role campaigned successfully against the Alamanni and Franks. Most notable was his crushing victory over the Alamanni in 357 at the Battle of Argentoratum despite being outnumbered. In 360 in Lutetia he was acclaimed Augustus by his soldiers, sparking a civil war between Julian and Constantius. Before the two could face each other in battle, however, Constantius died, after naming Julian as his rightful successor. In 363, Julian embarked on an ambitious campaign against the Sassanid Empire. Though initially successful, Julian was mortally wounded in battle and died shortly thereafter. Julian was a man of unusually complex character: he was "the military commander, the theosophist, the social reformer, and the man of letters". He was the last non-Christian ruler of the Roman Empire, and it was his desire to bring the Empire back to its ancient Roman values in order to save it from dissolution. He purged the top-heavy state bureaucracy and attempted to revive traditional Roman religious practices at the cost of Christianity. His rejection of Christianity in favour of Neoplatonic paganism caused him to be called Julian the Apostate by the church. He was the last emperor of the Constantinian dynasty, the empire's first Christian dynasty.

Irenaeus

Deceased Person

Irenaeus, referred to by some as Saint Irenaeus, was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, then a part of the Roman Empire. He was an early Church Father and apologist, and his writings were formative in the early development of Christian theology. He was a hearer of Polycarp, who in turn was traditionally a disciple of John the Evangelist. Irenaeus' best-known book, Adversus Haereses or Against Heresies is a detailed attack on Gnosticism, which was then a serious threat to the Church, and especially on the system of the Gnostic Valentinus. As one of the first great Christian theologians, he emphasized the traditional elements in the Church, especially the episcopate, Scripture, and tradition. Against the Gnostics, who said that they possessed a secret oral tradition from Jesus himself, Irenaeus maintained that the bishops in different cities are known as far back as the Apostles—and none of them was a Gnostic—and that the bishops provided the only safe guide to the interpretation of Scripture. His writings, with those of Clement and Ignatius, are taken as among the earliest signs of the developing doctrine of the primacy of the Roman see. Irenaeus is the earliest witness to recognition of the canonical character of all four gospels.

Adnan Menderes

Politician

Adnan Menderes was the elected Turkish Prime Minister between 1950–1960. He was one of the founders of the Democratic Party in 1946, the fourth legal opposition party of Turkey. He was hanged by the military junta after the 1960 coup d'état, along with two other cabinet members, Fatin Rüştü Zorlu and Hasan Polatkan. He was the last Turkish political leader to be executed after a military coup and is also one of the three political leaders of the Turkish Republic to have a mausoleum built in his honour.

Aykut Kocaman

Soccer

Aykut Kocaman is a former Turkish footballer, who played as a striker and former manager of Fenerbahçe. Before he made his debut 1980 with the amateur club Kabataş Altınmızrak in Istanbul, Kocaman performed gymnastics at the club Eczacıbaşı, winning 40 medals and reaching second place at the national level. 1984, he moved to Sakaryaspor in Adapazarı, Sakarya and turned professional. Then in 1988, Kocaman signed a contract with Fenerbahçe, where he played and contributed much to success of his club until he was transferred to Istanbulspor in 1996. He was actually fired from Fenerbahçe despite his championship winning goal in the last game of the season against Trabzonspor. His gentle words and his regret for the beaten rival team apparently angered the club president Ali Şen. Kocaman played four seasons for Istanbulspor and, retired in 2000 as active player. Some say he played his last years to pass the 200 goal barrier. He was famous for a special move, where he would ease a high-pass on his chest and rocket the ball to the goal. In his playing years some fans named this move "Aykut" after him. After his career as a player Kocaman served as manager of Istanbulspor for four successive seasons. Uzan Family withdrew its support from Istanbulspor in 2001. Because of this, Istanbulspor fell into financial crisis, and became 9th in 2002–03 finally in 2003.

Heraclius

Monarch

Heraclius was Byzantine Emperor from 610 to 641. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Eastern Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, successfully led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas. Heraclius's reign was marked by several military campaigns. The year Heraclius came to power, the empire was threatened on multiple frontiers. Heraclius immediately took charge of the ongoing war against the Sassanids. The first battles of the campaign ended in defeat for the Byzantines; the Persian army fought their way to the Bosphorus; however, because Constantinople was protected by impenetrable walls and a strong navy, Heraclius was able to avoid total defeat. Soon after, he initiated reforms to rebuild and strengthen the military. Heraclius drove the Persians out of Asia Minor and pushed deep into their territory, defeating them decisively in 627 at the Battle of Nineveh. The Persian king Khosrau II was overthrown and executed soon after and peace was restored to the two deeply strained empires. However, soon after his victory he faced a new threat, the Muslim invasions. Emerging from the Arabian Peninsula, the Muslims quickly conquered the Sassanid empire. In 634 the Muslims invaded Roman Syria, defeating Heraclius' brother Theodore. Within a short period of time the Arabs would also conquer Mesopotamia, Armenia, and Egypt.

Nasreddin

Man

Nasreddin was a Seljuq satirical Sufi, believed to have lived and died during the 13th century in Akşehir, near Konya, a capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, in today's Turkey. He is considered a populist philosopher and wise man, remembered for his funny stories and anecdotes. He appears in thousands of stories, sometimes witty, sometimes wise, but often, too, a fool or the butt of a joke. A Nasreddin story usually has a subtle humour and a pedagogic nature. The International Nasreddin Hodja fest is celebrated between 5–10 July in his hometown every year.

Basil of Caesarea

Religious Leader

Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great, was the Greek bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor. He was an influential theologian who supported the Nicene Creed and opposed the heresies of the early Christian church, fighting against both Arianism and the followers of Apollinaris of Laodicea. His ability to balance his theological convictions with his political connections made Basil a powerful advocate for the Nicene position. In addition to his work as a theologian, Basil was known for his care of the poor and underprivileged. Basil established guidelines for monastic life which focus on community life, liturgical prayer, and manual labour. Together with Pachomius he is remembered as a father of communal monasticism in Eastern Christianity. He is considered a saint by the traditions of both Eastern and Western Christianity. Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa are collectively referred to as the Cappadocian Fathers. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches have given him, together with Gregory of Nazianzus and John Chrysostom, the title of Great Hierarch. His is recognised as a Doctor of the Church in both Eastern Orthodoxy and in the Roman Catholic Church. He is sometimes referred to by the epithet "Ουρανοφαντωρ", "revealer of heavenly mysteries".

Burak Yılmaz

Soccer

Burak Yılmaz is a Turkish international footballer who plays for Galatasaray as a striker.

Epictetus

Philosopher

Epictetus was a Greek sage and Stoic philosopher. He was born a slave at Hierapolis, Phrygia, and lived in Rome until his banishment, when he went to Nicopolis in northwestern Greece for the rest of his life. His teachings were written down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses. Philosophy, Epictetus taught, is a way of life and not just a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are determined by fate, and are thus beyond our control; we should accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. However, individuals are responsible for their own actions, which they can examine and control through rigorous self-discipline. Suffering occurs from trying to control what is uncontrollable, or from neglecting what is within our power. As part of the universal city that is the universe, it is our duty to care for all our fellow men. Those who follow these precepts will achieve happiness and peace of mind.

Fatih Terim

Soccer

Fatih Terim, Commendatore OSSI, is a Turkish football manager and former player who is currently interim manager of Turkey. Terim was born in Adana, Turkey to Nuriye and Talat Terim. His father Talat, is a Turkish Cypriot who emigrated to Turkey. Terim is regarded as a hard-line motivator whose no-nonsense approach was honed during 11 years as a rugged defender with Galatasaray. His nickname is İmparator, which is the Turkish word for "Emperor". This nickname is also widely used in Italy to refer to Terim. In his managerial career, Terim has been the manager of several clubs in Italy and Turkey, as well as the manager of Turkey national football team. In a survey conducted by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics in 80 countries, Terim was placed among the best 8 managers in the world. He received his award at a ceremony held in Rothenburg, Germany on 8 January 2001. Terim was nominated to be named UEFA manager of the year 2008, and Eurosport named Terim as the best coach at UEFA Euro 2008. In December 2008, Terim was ranked the 7th best football manager in the world by World Soccer Magazine. Terim resigned from his post as the manager of the Turkey national football team in October 2009 after his team's failure to qualify for the 2010 FIFA World Cup finals. His last club manager post was at Galatasary from 2011 to 2013.

Cassius Dio

Historian

Lucius Cassius Dio, was a Roman consul and noted historian who wrote in Greek. Dio published a history of Rome in 80 volumes, beginning with the legendary arrival of Aeneas in Italy; the volumes then documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until AD 229. The entire period covered by Dio's work is approximately 1,400 years. Of the 80 books, written over 22 years, many survive into the modern age, intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.

Hakan Şükür

Soccer

Hakan Şükür is a retired Turkish footballer who played as a striker. He spent the majority of his professional career with Galatasaray, being a three-time Gol Kralı, representing the club in three different spells and winning a total of 14 major titles. Şükür represented Turkey a total of 112 times, scoring 51 goals, making him the nation's top goalscorer and 19th in the world. One of the most prolific strikers of the modern era, he netted 383 goals throughout his club career, as well as the fastest ever in a World Cup, in 2002. He retired from football in 2008, only scoring once in single digits for his main team in 13 seasons; nicknamed the "Bull of the Bosphorus", he was renowned for his heading ability. In 2011 general elections, he was elected as an Istanbul MP for the Justice and Development Party.

Mithridates VI of Pontus

Deceased Person

Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI, from Old Persian Mithradatha, "gift of Mithra"; 134–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia from about 120–63 BC. Mithridates is remembered as one of the Roman Republic’s most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the prominent generals from the late Roman Republic in the Mithridatic Wars: Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey. He was also the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus.

Sibel Can

Pop folk Artist

Sibel Can is a popular Turkish folk pop singer. In recent years, she has also become popular in Azerbaijan. Sibel Can became a dancer at the age 14 and later started her singing career. She has been known as one of the most successful and powerful singers in Turkey. She is of Romani heritage.

Rafet El Roman

Turkish pop Artist

Rafet El Roman, is a Turkish pop star. He got his name from a fictional character named "El Romano".

Ibn Taymiyyah

Philosopher

Taqi ad-Din Ahmad ibn Taymiyyah, full name: Taqī ad-Dīn Abu 'l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥalīm ibn ʿAbd as-Salām Ibn Taymiya al-Ḥarrānī, was an Islamic scholar, theologian and logician. He lived during the troubled times of the Mongol invasions. He was a member of the school founded by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and is considered by his followers, along with Ibn Qudamah, as one of the two most significant proponents of Hanbalism; in the modern era, his adherents often refer to the two as "the two sheikhs and Sheikh ul-Islam. Ibn Taymiyyah was notable for having sought the return of Islam to what he viewed as earlier interpretations of the Qur'an and the Sunnah.

Cem Karaca

Anatolian rock Artist

Muhtar Cem Karaca, also called Cem Baba, was a prominent Turkish rock musician and one of the most important figures in the Anatolian rock movement. He is a graduate of Robert College.

Hedo Türkoğlu

Basketball Small forward

Hidayet "Hedo" Türkoğlu is a Turkish professional basketball player who currently plays for the Orlando Magic of the NBA. He plays the small forward position, although he has played four positions in his career. He possesses above-average ballhandling and playmaking skills for a forward, and is sometimes used in a point forward role.

Ömer Aşık

Basketball Center

Ömer Faruk Aşık is a Turkish professional basketball player who plays for the Houston Rockets in the National Basketball Association. Aşık, standing at 7'0", was sought after by many of the top Euroleague basketball teams at the age of 19. Aşık got his first chance playing professionally with the Turkish basketball league team Fenerbahçe in 2005–06. Aşık moved around the Turkish Basketball League and eventually ended his Turkish club career with Fenerbahçe in 2008–2009. He gained recognition playing for the Turkish National Team in the 2010 FIBA World Championship, and as the starting center, he helped Turkey win the silver medal. In July 2010, Aşık signed a contract to become a Chicago Bull. He was nicknamed "The Turkish Hammer" and "Asik and Destroy" by Bulls commentator Stacey King.

Musa Eroğlu

Musical Artist

Musa Eroğlu is a Turkish folk musician and bağlama virtuoso. He was born in the Mut county district of Mersin. He completed his secondary education in Mut. He started to show interest in music and to play bağlama at an early age. He´s a notable poet and songwriter, baglama virtuoso. He gets his inspiration by Âşık Veysel Şatıroğlu, who is a high regarded poet of the Turkish folk literature. His collaboration with other bağlama masters such as Arif Sağ, Muhlis Akarsu, and Yavuz Top in a series of albums titled "Muhabbet" was widely acclaimed in Turkey. In 1998 he was officially recognized by the Turkish state, and works with the ministry of culture as an expert and researcher in Turkish folk music and dance.

Kemal Sunal

Actor

Kemal Sunal was a master of comedy in the Turkish history of cinema. Famed for his parts as "İnek Şaban", "Tosun Paşa", "Kibar Feyzo", "Süt Kardeşler". With "Hababam Sınıfı", "Kapıcılar Kralı" and "Davaro", Sunal gained large popularity amongst Turkish cinema goers and was famed for his role as "Şaban", a name he most often used in his films. His character in films and sayings often reflected the problems the Turkish people face and the country.

Ferdi Tayfur

Singer

Ferdi Tayfur is a Turkish arabesque singer, actor and composer. In recent years, he has also become popular in Afghanistan, Lebanon, Trinidad and Tobago, Syria and Iran. He achieved estimated sales of over 50-60 million records worldwide. He was born in Hurriyet neighbourhood of Adana, Turkey and he has led a successful career in arabesque music. Being successful in his arabesque career he has been announced as the King of Arabesque, a music type very popular in today's Turkey and the middle east. His father, Cumali, who was a big fan of a famous theater and dubbing actor "Ferdi Tayfur" named his youngest son after him. After his father was killed, he was not able to continue his education because he had to work in the cotton fields of Cukurova to support his family. Ferdi Tayfur went to Istanbul when he was 17 with dreams of becoming a famous singer. He was not able to succeed on doing this and so he returned to Adana after a short stay in Istanbul. He came back to Istanbul in the early 1970s and his constant attempts to become a singer finally started to pay off. He has got over 100 music albums and over 30 films in his credit and he has received the prestigious Golden Album Award nine times.

Anaxagoras

Philosopher

Anaxagoras was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher. Born in Clazomenae in Asia Minor, Anaxagoras was the first philosopher to bring philosophy from Ionia to Athens. He attempted to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors, rainbows, and the sun, which he described as a fiery mass larger than the Peloponnese. According to Diogenes Laertius and Plutarch, he fled to Lampsacus due to a backlash against his pupil Pericles. Anaxagoras is famous for introducing the cosmological concept of Nous, as an ordering force. He regarded material substance as an infinite multitude of imperishable primary elements, referring all generation and disappearance to mixture and separation, respectively.

Hipparchus

Mathematician

Hipparchus of Nicaea, or more correctly Hipparchos, was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician of the Hellenistic period. He is considered the founder of trigonometry but is most famous for his incidental discovery of precession of the equinoxes. Hipparchus was born in Nicaea, Bithynia, and probably died on the island of Rhodes. He is known to have been a working astronomer at least from 162 to 127 BC. Hipparchus is considered the greatest ancient astronomical observer and, by some, the greatest overall astronomer of antiquity. He was the first whose quantitative and accurate models for the motion of the Sun and Moon survive. For this he certainly made use of the observations and perhaps the mathematical techniques accumulated over centuries by the Chaldeans from Babylonia. He developed trigonometry and constructed trigonometric tables, and he solved several problems of spherical trigonometry. With his solar and lunar theories and his trigonometry, he may have been the first to develop a reliable method to predict solar eclipses. His other reputed achievements include the discovery and measurement of Earth's precession, the compilation of the first comprehensive star catalog of the western world, and possibly the invention of the astrolabe, also of the armillary sphere, which he used during the creation of much of the star catalogue. It would be three centuries before Claudius Ptolemaeus' synthesis of astronomy would supersede the work of Hipparchus.

Necmettin Erbakan

Politician

Prof. Dr. Necmettin Erbakan was a Turkish engineer, academic, and politician, who held the position of Prime Minister of Turkey from 1996 until 1997. He was pressured by the military to step down as prime minister and later banned from politics by the constitutional court.

Murat Boz

Turkish pop Artist

Murat Boz is a Turkish pop singer. He was born on March 7, 1980 in Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey, and currently resides in Istanbul.

Sabbatai Zevi

Deceased Person

Sabbatai Zevi was a Sephardic Rabbi and kabbalist who claimed to be the long-awaited Jewish Messiah. He was the founder of the Jewish Sabbatean movement. At the age of forty, he was forced by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed IV to convert to Islam. Some of his followers also converted to Islam, about 300 families who were known as the Dönmeh.

Emre Belözoğlu

Soccer

Emre Belözoğlu is a Turkish football midfielder who plays for Fenerbahçe. Having also played for clubs Galatasaray, Inter Milan, Newcastle United and Atlético Madrid, Emre has been a part of the Turkey national team at the 2002 World Cup and at Euro 2008. Pelé named him in the FIFA 100, a list of the 125 greatest living footballers as a part of FIFA's centenary celebrations.

Fethullah Gülen

Educator

Fethullah Gülen is a Turkish writer, former imam and preacher and Islamic opinion leader. He is the founder of the Gülen movement. He currently lives in a self-imposed exile in Saylorsburg, Pennsylvania, USA. Gülen teaches an Anatolian version of Islam, deriving from Sunni Muslim scholar Bediüzzaman Said Nursi's teachings and modernizes them. Gülen has stated his belief in science, interfaith dialogue among the People of the Book, and multi-party democracy. He has initiated such dialogue with the Vatican and some Jewish organizations. Gülen is actively involved in the societal debate concerning the future of the Turkish state, and Islam in the modern world. He has been described in the English-language media as "one of the world's most important Muslim figures." In the Turkish context Gülen appears relatively conservative and religiously observant.

Ignatius of Antioch

Deceased Person

Ignatius of Antioch was among the Apostolic Fathers, was the third Bishop of Antioch, and was a student of John the Apostle. En route to Rome, where according to Christian tradition he met his martyrdom by being fed to wild beasts, he wrote a series of letters which have been preserved as an example of very early Christian theology. Important topics addressed in these letters include ecclesiology, the sacraments, and the role of bishops.

Nouriel Roubini

Economist

Nouriel Roubini is an American economist. He anticipated the collapse of the United States housing market and the worldwide recession which started in 2008. He teaches at New York University's Stern School of Business and is the chairman of Roubini Global Economics, an economic consultancy firm. The child of Iranian Jews, he was born in Turkey and grew up in Italy. After receiving a BA in political economics at Bocconi University, Milan and a doctorate in international economics at Harvard University, he became an academic at Yale and a practising economist at the International Monetary Fund, the Federal Reserve, World Bank, and Bank of Israel. Much of his early research focused on emerging markets. During the administration of President Bill Clinton, he was a senior economist for the Council of Economic Advisers, later moving to the United States Treasury Department as a senior adviser to Timothy Geithner, who in 2009 became Treasury Secretary. Roubini's critical and consistently bearish economic views have earned him the nicknames "Dr. Doom" and "permabear" in the media. In 2008, Fortune magazine wrote, "In 2005 Roubini said home prices were riding a speculative wave that would soon sink the economy. Back then the professor was called a Cassandra. Now he's a sage". The New York Times notes that he foresaw "homeowners defaulting on mortgages, trillions of dollars of mortgage-backed securities unraveling worldwide and the global financial system shuddering to a halt". In September 2006, he warned a skeptical IMF that "the United States was likely to face a once-in-a-lifetime housing bust, an oil shock, sharply declining consumer confidence, and, ultimately, a deep recession". Nobel laureate Paul Krugman adds that his once "seemingly outlandish" predictions have been matched "or even exceeded by reality."

Mehmed VI

Religious Leader

Mehmet VI was the 36th and last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1918 to 1922. The brother of Mehmed V, he succeeded to the throne as the eldest male member of the House of Osman after the 1916 suicide of Abdülaziz's son Yusuf Izzettin Efendi, the heir to the throne. He was girded with the Sword of Osman on 4 June 1918, as the thirty-sixth padishah. His father was Sultan Abdülmecid I and mother was Gülüstü, a Circassian. Mehmed was removed from the throne when the Ottoman sultanate was abolished in 1922.

Henri Fayol

Engineer

Henri Fayol was a French mining engineer and director of mines who developed a general theory of business administration. He and his colleagues developed this theory independently of scientific management but roughly contemporaneously. He was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.

Halit Ergenç

Actor

Halit Ergenç is an actor

İdil Biret

Classical Artist

İdil Biret is a Turkish concert pianist, renowned for her interpretations of the Romantic repertoire.

Anaximenes of Miletus

Philosopher

Anaximenes of Miletus was an Archaic Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC. One of the three Milesian philosophers, he is identified as a younger friend or student of Anaximander. Anaximenes, like others in his school of thought, practiced material monism. This tendency to identify one specific underlying reality made up of a material thing constitutes the bulk of the contributions for which Anaximenes is most famed.

Abdullah Öcalan

Politician

Abdullah Öcalan, also known as Apo, is one of the founding members of the militant organization the Kurdistan Workers' Party in 1978 in Turkey, which is listed as a terrorist organization internationally by some states and organizations, including NATO, the United States and the European Union. Öcalan was arrested in 1999 by Turkish security forces in Nairobi and taken to Turkey, where he was sentenced to death under Article 125 of the Turkish Penal Code, which concerns the formation of armed gangs. The sentence was commuted to aggravated life imprisonment when Turkey abolished the death penalty in support of its bid to be admitted to membership in the European Union. From 1999 until 2009, he was the sole prisoner on the İmralı island, in the Sea of Marmara. Öcalan has acknowledged the violent nature of the PKK, but says that the period of armed warfare was defunct and a political solution to the Kurdish question should be developed. The conflict between Turkey and the PKK has resulted in over 40,000 deaths, including PKK members, the Turkish military, and civilians, both Kurdish and Turkish.

Volkan Demirel

Soccer

Volkan Demirel is a Turkish goalkeeper who plays for the Süper Lig club Fenerbahçe and is also the goalkeeper for the Turkey national football team. Demirel was the starting goalkeeper of the Fenerbahçe side that reached the quarter-finals of the 2007–08 UEFA Champions League. He was also the starting goalkeeper of the Turkey side that reached the semi-finals of UEFA Euro 2008. Demirel married Miss Belgium 2009 Zeynep Sever on 21 September 2010.

Mihrimah Sultan

Noble person

Mihrimah Sultan was the daughter of the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman I and his wife Hürrem Sultan. Mihrimah Sultan's name is also spelled Mihrumah, Mihr-î-Mâh, Mihrî-a-Mâh or Mehr-î-Mâh. She was born in İstanbul. Mehr-î-Mâh means "Sun and Moon".

Bayezid I

Monarch

Bayezid I was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. He was the son of Murad I and Valide Sultan Gülçiçek Hatun.

Mustafa Denizli

Soccer

Mustafa Denizli is a former Turkish football player and now a coach who currently manages Çaykur Rizespor. He has managed many Turkish notable football clubs, including "Istanbul Big Three" and has won the Süper Lig title three times. He is currently the only manager in history to win the Süper Lig with three different clubs. He also has worked in outside of Turkey, Alemannia Aachen in Germany, Pas and Persepolis in Iran. He managed the Turkish national team for four years and reached the quarter-finals of Euro 2000. On 23 December 2011, he was returned to his former club, Persepolis but was resigned at the end of the season. He spent 17 years with his hometown club Altay in İzmir, gaining a reputation as one of the best left-sided forwards in the league. In 1980, he became topscorer with 12 goals. Denizli transferred then in 1983 to Galatasaray after Altay's relegation in 1982–83 season, but retired at the end of the season 1983–84 from active sport. During his playing time, he was capped 33 times for the national team. He started his next career as the assistant coach to German Jupp Derwall and served three years in this position at Galatasaray. In 1987, he took over his master’s position as head coach of the club and won the Süper Lig in the same year. For the same season, Denizli was appointed caretaker head coach of the Turkish national football team. In the season 1988–89, he reached the semi-finals of the European Cup with Galatasaray, but the road to the final was blocked by Steaua Bucuresti.

Osman I

Monarch

Osman I or Othman I or Osman Gazi Ottoman Turkish: سلطان عثمان غازى Sultan Osman Ghazi, Turkish: Osman Gazi or Osman Bey or I. Osman, Osman Gazi Han, nicknamed "Kara", was the leader of the Ottoman Turks, and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman State. The State, named after him, would prevail as a world empire for almost six centuries. It existed until 1 November 1922, after being in serious decline since the early 18th century. Osman announced the independence of his own small kingdom from the Seljuk Turks in 1299, and was acclaimed the Khan of the Kayihan tribe. The westward drive of the Mongol invasions had pushed scores of Muslims toward Osman's Anatolian principality, a power base that Osman was quick to consolidate. As the Byzantine Empire declined, the Ottoman Empire rose to take its place.

Polycarp

Physician

Polycarp was a 2nd-century Christian bishop of Smyrna. According to the Martyrdom of Polycarp he died a martyr, bound and burned at the stake, then stabbed when the fire failed to touch him. Polycarp is regarded as a saint in the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran churches. It is recorded by Irenaeus, who heard him speak in his youth, and by Tertullian, that he had been a disciple of John the Apostle. Saint Jerome wrote that Polycarp was a disciple of John and that John had ordained him bishop of Smyrna. The early tradition that expanded upon the Martyrdom to link Polycarp in competition and contrast with John the Apostle who, though many people had tried to kill him, was not martyred but died of old age after being exiled to the island of Patmos, is embodied in the Coptic language fragmentary papyri dating to the 3rd to 6th centuries. Frederick Weidmann, their editor, interprets the "Harris fragments" as Smyrnan hagiography addressing Smyrna-Ephesus church rivalries, which "develops the association of Polycarp and John to a degree unwitnessed, so far as we know, either before or since". The fragments echo the Martyrology, and diverge from it.

Kıvanç Tatlıtuğ

Actor

Kıvanç Tatlıtuğ is a Turkish actor and model who has received two Golden Butterfly Awards for Best Actor. Tatlıtuğ won the pageants Best Model of Turkey and Best Model of the World in 2002.

Ahmet Ertegun

Blues Artist

Ahmet Ertegün, July 31 [O.S. 18 July] 1923 – December 14, 2006) was a Turkish-American musician and businessman, best known as the founder and president of Atlantic Records, as a leader of the 1950s Rhythm & Blues revolution, and for discovering or championing artists like Eric Clapton; Phil Collins; Genesis; The Rolling Stones; Led Zeppelin; Crosby, Stills, Nash, and Young; Aretha Franklin; Ray Charles; Yes; Frank Zappa; and more. He also wrote classic blues and pop songs and served as Chairman of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and museum. Ertegun has been described as "one of the most significant figures in the modern recording industry." He also co-founded the New York Cosmos soccer team of the original North American Soccer League.

Ersun Yanal

Coach

Ersun Yanal is a Turkish football coach who is currently in charge of Süper Lig side Fenerbahçe. Ersun Yanal has impressed many football followers with excellent wins against Blackburn, Parma and Sporting Lisbon in the 2003–04 UEFA Cup going out to eventual winners, Valencia in extra-time after inflicting them with their only defeat in cup. The impressive run in the UEFA Cup and offensive football increased support for him to be named as Coach of the Turkish National Team. After a 2 year spell with the national side, Ersun Yanal adopted and added a new scientific understanding of the game, His style has always been attacking football doubled up with tactis unprecedented in Turkish Football after keeping newly promoted Manisaspor on top of the Süper Lig for 12 weeks with a 5–3 shock defeat of league title favorties Fenerbahçe One quality overlooked on Ersun Yanal is his years of devotion to Turkish Football. It was 20 years ago when he took charge of amateur outfit Denizli Belediyespor to move through ranks and hold a very respectable place amongst Turkish coaches. After a short break in top flight football, Yanal was persuaded to take over at Trabzonspor who were have their worst run for 6 years and took them from a bleak looking 11th to climb the table and finish 6th. 2008–09 season proved Yanal's knowledge and understanding of the game was far beyond any other manager at Trabzon by guiding them towards a long awaited league title. Trabzonspor were league leaders for over 10 weeks and belief amongst the fans of Trabzonspor was that a league title was on its way. However, the club impressed many pundits and sports writers by finishing 3rd and claiming a place in the formatted UEFA Europa League to which the general view is Trabzonspor can build on stronger foundations from now on. Ersun Yanal's contribution to Turkish football is hugely appreciated even today with the talents Arda Turan blossoming in UEFA Euro 2008 rating him at €15 million. It was during Arda's loan spell at Manisaspor Ersun Yanal borought the best out of Arda who now is scouted by many top English and European clubs. Also, In the late hours of 9 August 2011, it was announced that Arda would be joining Atlético Madrid for a fee of €12 million plus bonuses, making him the most expensive Turkish footballer of all-time.

Saint Blaise

Deceased Person

Saint Blaise, also known as Saint Blase, was a physician, and bishop of Sebastea in historical Armenia. According to the Acta Sanctorum, he was martyred by being beaten, attacked with iron carding combs, and beheaded. In the Latin Church his feast falls on 3 February, in the Eastern Churches on 11 February.

İsmet İnönü

Military Commander

Mustafa İsmet İnönü was a Turkish Army General,the Prime Minister, and second President of Turkey. In 1938, the Republican People's Party gave him the title of "Milli Şef".

Cornelius Castoriadis

Philosopher

Cornelius Castoriadis was a Greek-French philosopher, social critic, economist, psychoanalyst, author of The Imaginary Institution of Society, and co-founder of the Socialisme ou Barbarie group. His writings on autonomy and social institutions have been influential in both academic and activist circles.

Eudoxus of Cnidus

Mathematician

Eudoxus of Cnidus was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar and student of Plato. All of his works are lost, though some fragments are preserved in Hipparchus' commentary on Aratus's poem on astronomy. Theodosius of Bithynia's important work, Sphaerics, may be based on a work of Eudoxus.

Zoe Porphyrogenita

Monarch

Zoe reigned as Byzantine Empress alongside her sister Theodora from April 19 to June 11, 1042. She was also enthroned as the Empress Consort to a series of co-rulers beginning with Romanos III in 1028 until her death in 1050 while married to Constantine IX.

Tchéky Karyo

Actor

Tchéky Karyo is a Turkish-born French actor and musician.

Teoman

Alternative rock Artist

Fazlı Teoman Yakupoğlu, using the stage name Teoman, is a popular Turkish acoustic rock singer and song-writer. His biggest hits include "Paramparça", Senden Önce Senden Sonra, 17 and Papatya. On Papatya, Turkish female rock singer Özlem Tekin features as backing vocals. Şebnem Ferah has also featured on a couple of Teoman's tracks. After studying business administration and mathematics at Bogazici University, he transferred to and graduated from the sociology department of the same university. He completed his graduate study on women studies at Istanbul University. His formal music career was first started in his first band Mirage in 1986. Teoman staged with various bands for 10 years until his breakthrough song, "Ne Ekmek Ne de Su" which won the first prize in Roxy Müzik Günleri. Lately, he announced on his official website that he was too tired with the life and decided to quit music, indefinitely.Announced on 24 November and returned to music again.

Zeki Müren

Ottoman classical Artist

Zeki Müren was a prominent Turkish singer, composer, and actor. He was famous for his compelling voice and precise articulation in his singing of both established Turkish classical music and contemporary songs.

Honorius

Monarch

Honorius, was Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius, who was the Byzantine Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. Even by the standards of the rapidly declining Western Empire, Honorius' reign was precarious and chaotic. His reign was supported by his principal general, Flavius Stilicho, who was successively Honorius's guardian and his father-in-law. Stilicho's generalship helped preserve some level of stability, but with his execution, the Western Roman Empire moved closer to collapse.

Kenan Evren

Politician

Kenan Evren was the seventh President of Turkey from 1980 to 1989. He assumed the post by leading the 1980 military coup.

DJ Quicksilver

Trance Artist

Orhan Terzi, better known by his stage name DJ Quicksilver is a Turkish DJ and music producer based in Germany. His stage name derives from his days taking part in DJ contests, where a mercury column would gauge audience reaction.

Saint Pantaleon

Deceased Person

Saint Pantaleon, counted in the West among the late-medieval Fourteen Holy Helpers and in the East as one of the Holy Unmercenary Healers, was a martyr of Nicomedia in Bithynia during the Diocletian persecution of 303 AD. Though there is evidence to suggest that a martyr named Pantaleon existed, the various stories told of his life and death are considered by some to be purely legendary.

Gregory of Nazianzus

Religious Leader

Gregory of Nazianzus, also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials. Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the brothers Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, he is known as one of the Cappadocian Fathers. Gregory is a saint in both Eastern and Western Christianity. In the Roman Catholic Church he is numbered among the Doctors of the Church; in Eastern Orthodoxy and the Eastern Catholic Churches he is revered as one of the Three Holy Hierarchs, along with Basil the Great and John Chrysostom.

Tuncay Şanlı

Soccer

Tuncay Volkan Şanlı, or simply Tuncay, is a Turkish footballer who plays for Bursaspor. His natural position is striker, but he has played as an attacking midfielder and on either wing. He was in the Turkey team that finished in third place in both the 2003 Confederations Cup and the 2008 European Championships.

Mehmet Ali Ağca

Man

Mehmet Ali Ağca is a Turkish assassin who murdered left-wing journalist Abdi İpekçi on February 1, 1979 and later shot and wounded Pope John Paul II on May 13, 1981, after escaping from a Turkish prison. After serving 19 years of imprisonment in Italy, he was deported to Turkey, where he served a ten-year sentence. He was released on January 18, 2010. Ağca has described himself as a mercenary with no political orientation, although he is known to have been a member of the Turkish ultra-nationalist Grey Wolves organization.

Acun Ilıcalı

TV Personality

Acun Ilıcalı is a Turkish television personality, producer, actor and sport journalist. He is also the founder and head of Acun Medya.