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Trinidad and Tobago country facts

Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Central America and the Caribbean Port of Spain 1,223,916 inhabitants 5,128 sq km 238.67 inhabitants/sq km Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) population evolution



First colonized by the Spanish, the islands came under British control in the early 19th century. The islands' sugar industry was hurt by the emancipation of the slaves in 1834. Manpower was replaced with the importation of contract laborers from India between 1845 and 1917, which boosted sugar production as well as the cocoa industry. The discovery of oil on Trinidad in 1910 added another important export. Independence was attained in 1962. The country is one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean thanks largely to petroleum and natural gas production and processing. Tourism, mostly in Tobago, is targeted for expansion and is growing. The government is coping with a rise in violent crime.



Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Venezuela

Geographic coordinates

11 00 N, 61 00 W

Area (sq km)

total: 5,128 sq km
land: 5,128 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries (km)

0 km

Coastline (km)

362 km

Maritime claims

measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the outer edge of the continental margin


tropical; rainy season (June to December)


mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: El Cerro del Aripo 940 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, asphalt

Land use (%)

arable land: 4.87%
permanent crops: 4.29%
other: 90.84% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

36 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

3.84 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 0.23 cu km/yr (67%/25%/8%)
per capita: 177.9 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Environment - current issues

water pollution from agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes, and raw sewage; oil pollution of beaches; deforestation; soil erosion

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

Pitch Lake, on Trinidad's southwestern coast, is the world's largest natural reservoir of asphalt

People and Society


noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)
adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Ethnic groups (%)

East Indian 35.4%, African 34.2%, mixed - other 15.3%, mixed African/East Indian 7.7%, other 1.3%, unspecified 6.2% (2011 est.)

Languages (%)

English (official), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), French, Spanish, Chinese

Religions (%)

Protestant 32.1% (Pentecostal/Evangelical/Full Gospel 12%, Baptist 6.9%, Anglican 5.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.1%, Presbyterian/Congretational 2.5, other Protestant .9), Roman Catholic 21.6%, Hindu 18.2%, Muslim 5%, Jehovah's Witness 1.5%, other 8.4%, none 2.2%, unspecified 11.1% (2011 est.)


1,223,916 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 19.4% (male 121,386/female 116,661)
15-24 years: 13% (male 82,779/female 76,785)
25-54 years: 46.9% (male 298,156/female 276,205)
55-64 years: 11.1% (male 67,738/female 68,535)
65 years and over: 9.1% (male 50,107/female 65,564) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Trinidad and Tobago

Median age (years)

total: 34.4 years
male: 34 years
female: 34.9 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

-0.11% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

13.8 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

8.48 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

-6.42 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 13.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.21% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

PORT-OF-SPAIN (capital) 66,000 (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

46 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 24.82 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 26.05 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 23.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 72.29 years
male: 69.42 years
female: 75.24 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

1.71 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

5.7% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

1.18 physicians/1,000 population (2007)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2.1)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 93.1% of population
total: 93.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 6.9% of population
total: 6.4% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 92.1% of population
rural: 92.1% of population
total: 92.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.9% of population
rural: 7.9% of population
total: 7.9% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

1.6% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

14,300 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

500 (2012 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

29.3% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight (%)

4.4% (2000)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

3.2% of GDP (2003)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.8%
male: 99.2%
female: 98.5% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2004)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 (%)

total: 10.5%
male: 8.8%
female: 12.9% (2008)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
conventional short form: Trinidad and Tobago

Government type

parliamentary democracy


name: Port of Spain
geographic coordinates: 10 39 N, 61 31 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

9 regions, 3 boroughs, 2 cities, 1 ward
regions: Couva/Tabaquite/Talparo, Diego Martin, Mayaro/Rio Claro, Penal/Debe, Princes Town, Sangre Grande, San Juan/Laventille, Siparia, Tunapuna/Piarco
borough: Arima, Chaguanas, Point Fortin
cities: Port of Spain, San Fernando
ward: Tobago


31 August 1962 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 31 August (1962)


previous 1962; latest 1976; amended many times, last in 2007 (2012)

Legal system

English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Anthony CARMONA (since 18 March 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR (since 26 May 2010)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed from among the members of Parliament
elections: president elected by an electoral college, which consists of members of the Senate and House of Representatives, for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 15 February 2013 (next to be held by February 2018); the president usually appoints the leader of the majority party in the House of Representatives as prime minister
election results: Anthony CARMONA elected president unopposed by the electoral college; sworn in on 18 March 2013; percent of electoral college vote - 100%

Legislative branch

bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (31 seats; 16 members appointed by the ruling party, 9 by the president, 6 by the opposition party to serve a maximum term of five years) and the House of Representatives (41 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 24 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: House of Representatives - percent of vote - NA; seats by party - UNC 21, PNM 12, COP 6, TOP 2
note: Tobago has a unicameral House of Assembly with 12 members serving four-year terms; last election held in January 2013; seats by party - PNM 12

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Judicature (consists of a chief justice for both the Court of Appeal with 12 judges and the High Court with 24 judges)
note - Trinidad and Tobago can file appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the president after consultation with the prime minister and the parliamentary leader of the opposition; other judges appointed by the Judicial Legal Services Commission, headed by the chief justice and 5 members with judicial experience; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement normally at age 65
subordinate courts: Courts of Summary Criminal Jurisdiction; Petty Civil Courts; Family Court

Political parties and leaders

Congress of the People or COP [Prakash RAMADHAR]
Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES] (only active in Tobago)
Democratic National Alliance or DNA [Charles CARSON] (coalition of NAR, DDPT, MND)
Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS]
National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Lennox SANKERSINGH]
People's National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY]
Tobago Organization of the People or TOP [Ashworth JACK]
United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Jamaat-al Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Neil N. PARSAN (since 14 February 2011)
chancery: 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-6490
FAX: [1] (202) 785-3130
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Margaret B. DIOP
embassy: 15 Queen's Park West, Port of Spain
mailing address: P. O. Box 752, Port of Spain
telephone: [1] (868) 622-6371 through 6376
FAX: [1] (868) 822-5905

Flag description

red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side to the lower fly side; the colors represent the elements of earth, water, and fire; black stands for the wealth of the land and the dedication of the people; white symbolizes the sea surrounding the islands, the purity of the country's aspirations, and equality; red symbolizes the warmth and energy of the sun, the vitality of the land, and the courage and friendliness of its people

National symbol(s)

scarlet ibis (bird of Trinidad); cocrico (bird of Tobago)

National anthem

name: "Forged From the Love of Liberty"
lyrics/music: Patrick Stanislaus CASTAGNE
note: adopted 1962; the song was originally created to serve as an anthem for the West Indies Federation; it was adopted by Trinidad and Tobago following the Federation's dissolution in 1962


Economy - overview

Trinidad and Tobago attracts considerable foreign direct investment from international businesses, particularly in energy, and has one of the highest per capita incomes in Latin America. Economic growth between 2000 and 2007 averaged slightly over 8% per year, significantly above the regional average of about 3.7% for that same period; however, GDP has slowed down since then and contracted during 2009-2011 due to depressed natural gas prices and changing markets. Growth had been fueled by investments in liquefied natural gas, petrochemicals, and steel with additional upstream and downstream investment planned. Trinidad and Tobago is the leading Caribbean producer of oil and gas, and its economy is heavily dependent upon these resources. It also supplies manufactured goods, notably food products and beverages, as well as cement to the Caribbean region. Oil and gas account for about 40% of GDP and 80% of exports, but only 5% of employment. Oil production has declined over the last decade as the country focused the majority of its efforts on natural gas. The current administration has been working to arrest this decline by opening bid rounds and providing fiscal incentives for investments in on-shore and deep water acreage to boost oil reserves and production. The government keeps a close watch on the changing global gas markets and has shown flexibility in diversifying natural gas export destinations. Although Trinidad and Tobago enjoys cheap electricity from natural gas, the renewable energy sector has recently garnered increased interest. The country is also a regional financial center with a well-regulated and stable financial system. Other sectors the Government of Trinidad and Tobago targeted for increased investment and projected growth include tourism, agriculture, information and communications technology, and shipping. The economy benefits from a growing trade surplus with the US. The US is Trinidad and Tobago's leading trade partner. The previous MANNING administration benefited from fiscal surpluses fueled by the dynamic export sector; however, declines in oil and gas prices have reduced government revenues, challenging the current government's commitment to maintaining high levels of public investment. Crime and bureaucratic hurdles continue to be the biggest deterrents for attracting more foreign direct investment and business.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$27.14 billion (2013 est.)
$26.71 billion (2012 est.)
$26.66 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$27.13 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

1.6% (2013 est.)
0.2% (2012 est.)
-2.6% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$20,300 (2013 est.)
$20,100 (2012 est.)
$20,100 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 0.3%
industry: 57.7%
services: 42% (2013 est.)

Labor force

621,000 (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 3.8%
manufacturing, mining, and quarrying: 12.8%
construction and utilities: 20.4%
services: 62.9% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate (%)

5.9% (2013 est.)
5.6% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)

17% (2007 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $7.847 billion
expenditures: $8.323 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

28.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-1.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

37.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
37.9% of GDP (2012 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

5.4% (2013 est.)
9.2% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)

4.25% (31 December 2010 est.)
7.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

7.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
7.7% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$7.044 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$6.221 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$20.12 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$17.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$6.403 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$6.059 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$15.17 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$14.73 billion (31 December 2011)
$12.16 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Agriculture - products

cocoa, rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables; poultry; sugar


petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, food processing, cement, cotton textiles

Industrial production growth rate (%)

1.2% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

$414.1 million (2013 est.)
$959 million (2012 est.)


$12.86 billion (2013 est.)
$12.98 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

petroleum and petroleum products, liquefied natural gas, methanol, ammonia, urea, steel products, beverages, cereal and cereal products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus fruit, vegetables, flowers

Exports - partners (%)

US 42.1%, Chile 7.1%, Argentina 6.5%, Spain 4.5% (2012)


$9.638 billion (2013 est.)
$9.065 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

mineral fuels, lubricants, machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals, live animals

Imports - partners (%)

US 33.1%, Brazil 8.1%, Colombia 7.7%, Gabon 5.5%, Canada 4.4%, China 4.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$10.07 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$9.897 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

External debt ($)

$4.823 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.722 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$102 billion (31 December 2008 est.)
$12.44 billion (2007)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$3.829 billion (2007)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TTD) per US dollar -
6.411 (2013 est.)
6.3907 (2012 est.)
6.3755 (2010 est.)
6.3099 (2009)
6.2896 (2008)

Fiscal year

1 October - 30 September


Electricity - production (kWh)

7.998 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

7.586 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

1.605 million kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

99.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

0.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

119,300 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

75,340 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

70,260 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

728.3 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

132,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

41,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

106,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

1,598 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

40.6 billion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

23.32 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

17.64 billion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

375.4 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

52.07 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

287,000 (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

1.884 million (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent international service; good local service
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 170 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-868; submarine cable systems provide connectivity to US and parts of the Caribbean and South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); tropospheric scatter to Barbados and Guyana (2011)

Broadcast media

5 TV networks, one of which is state-owned, broadcast on multiple stations; multiple cable TV subscription service providers; multiple radio networks, one state-owned, broadcast over about 35 stations (2007)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

241,690 (2012)

Internet users

593,000 (2009)



4 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Pipelines (km)

condensate 257 km; condensate/gas 11 km; gas 1,567 km; oil 587 km (2013)

Roadways (km)

total: 8,320 km
paved: 4,252 km
unpaved: 4,068 km (2001)

Merchant marine

total: 4
by type: passenger 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1
registered in other countries: 2 (unknown 2) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Point Fortin, Point Lisas, Port of Spain, Scarborough
oil terminals: Galeota Point terminal


Military branches

Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (TTDF): Trinidad and Tobago Army, Coast Guard, Air Guard, Defense Force Reserves (2010)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18-25 years of age for voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Trinidad and Tobago citizenship and completion of secondary school required (2012)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 341,764
females age 16-49: 317,899 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 269,824
females age 16-49: 261,735 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 8,164
female: 7,503 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago abide by the April 2006 Permanent Court of Arbitration decision delimiting a maritime boundary and limiting catches of flying fish in Trinidad and Tobago's exclusive economic zone; in 2005, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago agreed to compulsory international arbitration under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea challenging whether the northern limit of Trinidad and Tobago's and Venezuela's maritime boundary extends into Barbadian waters; Guyana has also expressed its intention to include itself in the arbitration as the Trinidad and Tobago-Venezuela maritime boundary may extend into its waters as well

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Trinidad and Tobago is a destination and transit country for adults and children subjected to sex trafficking and adults subjected to forced labor; local victims have been trafficked to the US and the UK for sexual exploitation, while women and girls from South America and the Dominican Republic have been subjected to sex trafficking in Trinidad and Tobago's brothels and clubs; some economic migrants from the Caribbean region and Asia have had their passports held and experienced forced labor conditions; children are vulnerable to forced labor, including scavenging trash; the country is a potential transit point for human trafficking to Caribbean and South American destinations
tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Trinidad and Tobago does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; in 2013, the government proclaimed its anti-trafficking law and established a counter-trafficking unit, but authorities did not use the law to its full effect; despite victim protections in the new law, the government has failed to properly screen and protect hundreds of potential trafficking victims; the reported complicity of public officials in trafficking offenses is also an obstacle (2013)

Illicit drugs

transshipment point for South American drugs destined for the US and Europe; producer of cannabis

Largest cities of Trinidad and Tobago

These are the 50 largest cities of Trinidad and Tobago ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Chaguanas 72,158
2 San Fernando 56,379
3 Arima 34,996
4 Marabella 26,700
5 Point Fortin 18,918
6 Tunapuna 17,758
7 Sangre Grande 15,968
8 Tacarigua 15,067
9 Arouca 12,054
10 Princes Town 11,000
11 Siparia 8,568
12 Couva 5,178