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Sudan country facts

Republic of the Sudan Africa Khartoum 35,482,233 inhabitants 1,861,484 sq km 19.06 inhabitants/sq km Sudanese pounds (SDG) population evolution



Military regimes favoring Islamic-oriented governments have dominated national politics since independence from Anglo-Egyptian co rule in 1956. Sudan was embroiled in two prolonged civil wars during most of the remainder of the 20th century. These conflicts were rooted in northern economic, political, and social domination of largely non-Muslim, non-Arab southern Sudanese. The first civil war ended in 1972 but another broke out in 1983. Peace talks gained momentum in 2002-04 with the signing of several accords. The final North/South Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), signed in January 2005, granted the southern rebels autonomy for six years followed by a referendum on independence for Southern Sudan. The referendum was held in January 2011 and indicated overwhelming support for independence. South Sudan became independent on 9 July 2011. Sudan and South Sudan have yet to fully implement security and economic agreements signed on September 27, 2012 relating to the normalization of relations between the two countries. The final disposition of the contested Abyei region has also to be decided. Since South Sudan's independence, conflict has broken out between the government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states, which has resulted in 1.2 million internally displaced persons or severely affected persons in need of humanitarian assistance. A separate conflict, which broke out in the western region of Darfur in 2003, has displaced nearly two million people and caused an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 deaths. Violence in Darfur in 2013 resulted in an additional estimated 6,000 civilians killed and 500,000 displaced. The UN and the African Union have jointly commanded a Darfur peacekeeping operation known as the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID) since 2007. Peacekeeping troops have struggled to stabilize the situation and have increasingly become targets for attacks by armed groups. In 2013, 16 peacekeepers were killed, UNAMID's deadliest year so far. Sudan also has faced refugee influxes from neighboring countries, primarily Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad, Central African Republic, and South Sudan. Armed conflict, poor transport infrastructure, and government denial of access have impeded the provision of humanitarian assistance to affected populations.



north-eastern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea

Geographic coordinates

15 00 N, 30 00 E

Area (sq km)

total: 1,861,484 sq km
land: NA
water: NA

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly less than one-fifth the size of the US

Land boundaries (km)

total: 6,751 km
border countries: Central African Republic 175 km, Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,275 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 769 km, Libya 383 km, South Sudan 2,184 km
note: Sudan-South Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment; final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei region pending negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan

Coastline (km)

853 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


hot and dry; arid desert; rainy season varies by region (April to November)


generally flat, featureless plain; desert dominates the north

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Red Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal Marrah 3,071 m

Natural resources

petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold; hydropower

Land use (%)

arable land: 6.76%
permanent crops: 0.07%
other: 93.17% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

18,900 sq km (2010)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

64.5 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 27.59 cu km/yr (4%/1%/95%)
per capita: 683.4 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

dust storms and periodic persistent droughts

Environment - current issues

inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil erosion; desertification; periodic drought

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

dominated by the Nile and its tributaries

People and Society


noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)
adjective: Sudanese

Ethnic groups (%)

Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata

Languages (%)

Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, Fur
note: program of "Arabization" in process

Religions (%)

Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority


35,482,233 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 40.8% (male 7,356,059/female 7,131,497)
15-24 years: 20.2% (male 3,704,700/female 3,476,847)
25-54 years: 31.8% (male 5,465,816/female 5,800,619)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 737,831/female 652,428)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 633,083/female 523,353) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Sudan

Median age (years)

total: 19.1 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 19.4 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

1.78% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

30.01 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

7.87 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

-4.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 33.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

KHARTOUM (capital) 4.632 million (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.24 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

730 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 52.86 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 58.29 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 63.32 years
male: 61.27 years
female: 65.46 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

3.92 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

8.4% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

0.28 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

0.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 66% of population
rural: 50.2% of population
total: 55.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 34% of population
rural: 49.8% of population
total: 44.5% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 43.9% of population
rural: 13.4% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 56.1% of population
rural: 86.6% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

1.1% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

260,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

12,000 (2009 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

6% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight (%)

31.7% (2006)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.9%
male: 80.7%
female: 63.2%
note: pre-secession of South Sudan (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 4 years (2000)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
local short form: As-Sudan
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Government type

federal republic ruled by the National Congress Party (NCP), which seized power by military coup in 1989; the CPA-mandated Government of National Unity, which between 2005 and 2011 provided a percentage of leadership posts to the southern Sudan-based Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), was disbanded following the secession of South Sudan


name: Khartoum
geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

17 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Jazira (Gezira), Al Khartoum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shimaliyya (Northern), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Kassala, Nahr an Nil (River Nile), Sharq Darfur (Eastern Darfur), Shimal Darfur (Northern Darfur), Shimal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sinnar, Wasat Darfur (Central Darfur)


1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day, 1 January (1956)


previous 1998; latest (interim) adopted 6 July 2005, effective 9 July 2005; note - in 2011, the Government of Sudan initiated a process for drafting a new constitution (2013)

Legal system

mixed legal system of Islamic law and English common law

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; withdrew acceptance of ICCt jurisdiction in 2008


17 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih, Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMIN (both since 3 December 2013) note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President BAKRI Hassan Salih, Second Vice President Hasabu Mohamed ABDEL RAHMAN (both since 9 December 2013)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet
elections: election on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR re-elected president; percent of vote - Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 68.2%, Yasir ARMAN 21.7%, Abdullah Deng NHIAL 3.9%, others 6.2%
note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in March 1996

Legislative branch

bicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; 60% from geographic constituencies, 25% from a women's list, and 15% from party lists; members to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NCP 323, SPLM 99, PCP 4, DUP 4, UFP 3, URDP 2, DUPO 2, SPLM-DC 2, other 7, vacant 4; composition of National Assembly following South Sudan's independence - seats by party - NCP 317, SPLM 8, PCP 4, DUP 4, UFP 3, URDP 2, DUPO 1, UP 1, UNP 1, UCLP 1, MB 1, independent 3, vacant 8
note: the mandate of the members from the south was terminated upon independence by the Republic of South Sudan effective 9 July 2011 and membership in Sudan's National Assembly was reduced to 354; it is unclear whether this total will be retained for the next election or whether the previous total of 450 will be reconstituted

Judicial branch

highest court(s): National Supreme Court (consists of 70 judges organized into panels of 3 judges; court includes 4 circuits that operate outside the capital); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 justices including the court president); note - the Constitutional Court resides outside the national judiciary
judge selection and term of office: National Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the National Judicial Service Commission, an independent body chaired by the chief justice of the republic and members including other judges and judicial and legal officials; Supreme Court judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed for 7 years
subordinate courts: National Court of Appeals; other national courts (not specified in the 2005 Interim National Constitution as to national or local authority); township and rural (peoples') courts

Political parties and leaders

Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI]
Muslim Brotherhood or MB
National Congress Party or NCP [Umar Hassan al-BASHIR]
National Umma Party or UP [Siddiq al-MAHDI]
Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]
Reform Now Party or RNP [Dr. Ghazi Salah ADDEEN]
Sudanese Communist Party (SCP) [Mohammed Moktar Al-KHATEEB]
Sudanese Congress Party [Ibrahim Al Shiek ABDULRAHMAN]
Unionist Movement Party or UMP [Nagla AL-AZHARI]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Sudan People's Liberation Movement-North (SPLM-N) [Malik AGAR]
Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF) [Malik AGAR]
National Consensus Front (NCF) [Farouq ABU ISSA]
Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Gibril Fidail IBRAHIM], the Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM-AW [Abdel Wahid NUR] [various factional leaders], Sudan Liberation or SLM-MM /[Minni Arkou MINAWI]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Elhafiz Eisa Abdulla ADAM
chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Deputy Chief of Mission Christopher ROWAN (since December 2012)
embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum
mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Kilo 10, Soba, Khartoum; APO AE 09829
telephone: [249] (187)-0-(22000)
FAX: [249] (183) 774-137

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; colors and design based on the Arab Revolt flag of World War I, but the meanings of the colors are expressed as follows: red signifies the struggle for freedom, white is the color of peace, light, and love, black represents Sudan itself (in Arabic 'Sudan' means black), green is the color of Islam, agriculture, and prosperity

National symbol(s)

secretary bird

National anthem

name: "Nahnu Djundulla Djundulwatan" (We Are the Army of God and of Our Land)
lyrics/music: Sayed Ahmad Muhammad SALIH/Ahmad MURJAN
note: adopted 1956; the song originally served as the anthem of the Sudanese military


Economy - overview

Sudan is an extremely poor country that has experienced protracted social conflict, civil war, and, in July 2011, the loss of three-quarters of its oil production due to the secession of South Sudan. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since 1999. For nearly a decade, the economy boomed on the back of rising oil production, high oil prices, and significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Since the economic shock of South Sudan's secession, Sudan has struggled to stabilize its economy and make up for the loss of foreign exchange earnings. The interruption of oil production in South Sudan in 2012 for over a year and the consequent loss of oil transit fees further exacerbated the fragile state of Sudan’s economy. Sudan is also subject to comprehensive US sanctions. Sudan is attempting to develop non-oil sources of revenues, such as gold mining, while carrying out an austerity program to reduce expenditures. The world’s largest exporter of gum Arabic, Sudan produces 75-80% of the world’s total output. Agriculture continues to employ 80% of the work force. Sudan introduced a new currency, still called the Sudanese pound, following South Sudan's secession, but the value of the currency has fallen since its introduction. Khartoum formally devalued the currency in June 2012, when it passed austerity measures that included gradually repealing fuel subsidies. Sudan also faces rising inflation, which reached 47% on an annual basis in November 2012, but subsided to 25% in 2013. Ongoing conflicts in Southern Kordofan, Darfur, and the Blue Nile states, lack of basic infrastructure in large areas, and reliance by much of the population on subsistence agriculture keep close to half of the population at or below the poverty line.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$89.97 billion (2013 est.)
$86.59 billion (2012 est.)
$89.51 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$52.5 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

3.9% (2013 est.)
-3.3% (2012 est.)
-1.8% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$2,600 (2013 est.)
$2,600 (2012 est.)
$2,700 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 27.4%
industry: 33.6%
services: 39% (2013 est.)

Labor force

11.92 million (2007 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 80%
industry: 7%
services: 13% (1998 est.)

Unemployment rate (%)

20% (2012 est.)
18.7% (2002 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)

46.5% (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: 2.7%
highest 10%: 26.7% (2009 est.)


revenues: $4.513 billion
expenditures: $6.842 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

8.6% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-4.4% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

111% of GDP (2013 est.)
101.7% of GDP (2012 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

25% (2013 est.)
37.4% (2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$8.035 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$7.927 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$12.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$13.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$9.785 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$11.64 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Agriculture - products

cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), mangoes, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame seeds; sheep and other livestock


oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining, pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly

Industrial production growth rate (%)

11% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$1.98 billion (2013 est.)
-$5.282 billion (2012 est.)


$4.145 billion (2013 est.)
$3.368 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

gold; oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar

Exports - partners (%)

UAE 63.2%, Saudi Arabia 9.2%, Ethiopia 5.3% (2012)


$5.941 billion (2013 est.)
$8.123 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat

Imports - partners (%)

Macau 18.1%, India 8.8%, Saudi Arabia 7.9%, Egypt 6.7%, UAE 5.2% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$202.2 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$192.6 million (31 December 2012 est.)

External debt ($)

$40.92 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$39.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar -
5.83 (2013 est.)
3.57 (2012 est.)
2.31 (2010 est.)
2.3 (2009)
2.1 (2008)

Fiscal year

calendar year


Electricity - production (kWh)

7.193 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

5.665 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

2.083 million kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

30.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

66.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

28,830 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

97,270 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

1.25 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

124,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

95,450 bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

14,950 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

4,349 bbl/day (2008 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

21.24 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

16.45 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

425,000 (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

27.659 million (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most major cities
domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications, tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations
international: country code - 249; linked to the EASSy and FLAG fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2010)

Broadcast media

the Sudanese Government directly controls TV and radio, requiring that both media reflect government policies; TV has a permanent military censor; a private radio station is in operation (2007)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

99 (2012)

Internet users

4.2 million (2008)



74 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 58
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 17
914 to 1,523 m: 28
under 914 m: 12 (2013)


6 (2013)

Pipelines (km)

gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2013)

Railways (km)

total: 5,978 km
narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2008)

Roadways (km)

total: 11,900 km
paved: 4,320 km
unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)

Waterways (km)

4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 2
by type: cargo 2 (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Port Sudan


Military branches

Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Popular Defense Forces (2011)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory or voluntary military service; 1-2 year service obligation; a requirement that completion of national service was mandatory before entering public or private sector employment has been cancelled (2012)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 10,433,973
females age 16-49: 10,411,443 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 6,475,530
females age 16-49: 6,840,885 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 532,030
female: 512,476 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

the effects of Sudan's almost constant ethnic and rebel militia fighting since the mid-20th century have penetrated all of the neighboring states; Chad wishes to be a helpful mediator in resolving the Darfur conflict, and in 2010 established a joint border monitoring force with Sudan, which has helped to reduce cross-border banditry and violence; as of mid-2013, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, Israel, the Central African Republic, and South Sudan provided shelter for more than 600,000 Sudanese refugees; during the same period, Sudan, in turn, hosted about 115,000 Eritreans, 32,000 Chadians, and smaller numbers of Ethiopians and Central Africans; Sudan accuses Eritrea of supporting Sudanese rebel groups; efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia proceed slowly due to civil and ethnic fighting in eastern Sudan; Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of the Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; periodic violent skirmishes with Sudanese residents over water and grazing rights persist among related pastoral populations along the border with the Central African Republic; South Sudan-Sudan boundary represents 1 January 1956 alignment, final alignment pending negotiations and demarcation; final sovereignty status of Abyei Area pending negotiations between South Sudan and Sudan

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 109,640 (Eritrea); 41,666 (Chad) (2013); 85,705 (South Sudan) (2014)
IDPs: 2.818 million (civil war 1983-2005; ongoing conflict in Darfur region; government and rebel fighting along South Sudan border; inter-tribal clashes) (2014)

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; Sudanese women and girls, particularly those from rural areas or who are internally displaced, are vulnerable to forced labor as domestic workers in homes throughout the country; some of these women and girls are subsequently sexually abused by male occupants of the household or forced to engage in commercial sex acts; Sudanese women and girls are subjected to domestic servitude in Middle Eastern countries and to forced sex trafficking in European countries; some Sudanese men who voluntarily migrate to the Middle East as low-skilled laborers face conditions indicative of forced labor; Sudanese children in Saudi Arabia are used in forced begging and street vending; Sudan is a transit and destination country for Ethiopian and Eritrean women subjected to domestic servitude in Sudan and Middle Eastern countries; Sudan is a destination for Ethiopian, Somali, and possibly Thai women subjected to forced prostitution; Sudanese children in Darfur are forcibly conscripted, at times through abduction, and used by armed groups and government security forces
tier rating: Tier 3 - Sudan does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; while the government has taken some initial steps to draft anti-trafficking legislation, prosecute suspected traffickers, demobilize and reintegrate child soldiers, and has convened its first workshop to discuss human trafficking, its efforts to combat human trafficking through law enforcement, protection, or prevention measures are undertaken in an ad hoc fashion, rather than as the result of strategic planning; the government has not employed a system for proactively identifying trafficking victims among vulnerable populations or a referral process for transferring victims to organizations providing care; its proxy militias reportedly unlawfully recruited and used child soldiers during the reporting period; the government has not taken action to conclude a proposed action plan with the UN to address the problem (2013)

Largest cities of Sudan

These are the 50 largest cities of Sudan ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Umm Durman 2,810,328
2 Khartoum 1,974,780
3 Kassala 401,514
4 Kusti 345,102
5 Wad Madani 332,752
6 Juba 163,455
7 Malakal 160,893
8 Rabak 135,389
9 Sinnar 130,138
10 Waw 127,400
11 Kaduqli 87,677
12 Umm Ruwabah 55,742
13 Sinjah 44,626
14 Yei 40,382
15 Yambio 40,382
16 Uwayl 38,745
17 Gogrial 38,572
18 Babanusah 29,637
19 Sawakin 28,570
20 Tandalti 27,275
21 Kinanah 26,233
22 Barbar 22,395
23 Tawkar 22,251
24 Abu Jubayhah 21,791
25 Torit 20,048
26 Doka 19,821
27 Tonj 17,338
28 Bara 16,969
29 Abu Zabad 15,304
30 Maridi 14,224
31 Talawdi 13,188
32 Sinkat 12,547
33 Marabba 12,108
34 Wagar 11,950
35 Yirol 11,646
36 Umm Kaddadah 10,979
37 Tabat 10,976
38 Tambul 10,489
39 Ler 10,486
40 Wad Rawah 10,348
41 Marawi 10,234
42 Kutum 9,849
43 Tambura 9,484
44 Galgani 9,472
45 Umm Jarr 9,038
46 Bentiu 7,653
47 Kapoeta 7,042