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Portuguese Republic Europe Lisbon 10,813,834 inhabitants 92,090 sq km 117.43 inhabitants/sq km euros (EUR) population evolution

Famous people from Portugal

Here is a list of famous people from Portugal. Curious if anybody from Portugal made it our most famous people in the world list? Read the aformentioned article in order to find out.

José Mourinho

Soccer Midfielder

José Mário dos Santos Mourinho Félix, OIH, or simply José Mourinho, is a Portuguese football manager and former football player, who is the current manager of Chelsea. Mourinho started out as a player in the 2nd Portuguese division. He studied sports science in Technical University of Lisbon and attended coaching courses in Britain. In Lisbon he worked as a physical education teacher and had spells working as a youth team coach, a scout, and an assistant manager. In the early 1990s, he became an interpreter for Sir Bobby Robson at Sporting Clube de Portugal and Porto in Portugal, and Barcelona in Spain. He remained at the Catalonian club working with Robson's successor Louis van Gaal. Mourinho impressed with brief but successful managerial periods at Benfica and União de Leiria, taking the latter to their highest ever league finish. He returned to Porto in early 2002 as head coach, winning the Primeira Liga, Taça de Portugal, and UEFA Cup in 2003. In the next season Mourinho guided the team to victory in the Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira, to the top of the league for a second time, and won the highest honour in European club football, the UEFA Champions League. Mourinho moved to Chelsea the following year and won the Premier League title with a record 95 points, the club's first league title in 50 years, and the League Cup in his first season. In his second year Chelsea retained the Premier League and in 2006–07 he took the club to an FA Cup and League Cup double, though they finished as league runners-up. Mourinho left Chelsea in September 2007, amidst reports of a rift with club owner Roman Abramovich.

Ferdinand Magellan


Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who became known for having organised the expedition that resulted in the first circumnavigation of the Earth completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano. He was born in a still disputed location in northern Portugal, and served King Charles I of Spain in search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands". Magellan's expedition of 1519–1522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean, and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Magellan did not complete the entire voyage, as he was killed during the Battle of Mactan in the Philippines. The Magellanic Penguin was named for him, as he was the first European to note it; other memorials are the Magellanic clouds, now known to be nearby dwarf galaxies; the twin lunar craters of Magelhaens and Magelhaens A; and the Martian crater of Magelhaens.

Vasco da Gama


D. Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India. He is one of the most famous and celebrated explorers from the Discovery Ages, being the first European to reach India by sea. This discovery was very significant and paved the way for the Portuguese to establish a long lasting colonial empire in Asia. The route meant that the Portuguese would not need to cross the highly disputed Mediterranean nor the dangerous Arabia, and that the whole voyage would be made by sea. After decades of sailors trying to reach India with thousands of lives and dozens of vessels lost in shipwrecks and attacks, Gama landed in Calicut on 20 May 1498. Reaching the legendary Indian spice routes unopposed helped the Portuguese Empire improve its economy that, until Gama, was mainly based on trades along Northern and coastal West Africa. These spices were mostly pepper and cinnamon at first, but soon included other products, all new to Europe which led to a commercial monopoly for several decades. Gama headed two of the armadas destined for India, the first and the fourth, the biggest armada, only four years after his arrival from the first one. For his contributions he was named in 1524 as the Governor of India, under the title of Viceroy, and given the newly created County of Vidigueira in 1519.

Anthony of Padua


Anthony of Padua, O.F.M., also known as Anthony of Lisbon, was a Portuguese Catholic priest and friar of the Franciscan Order. Though he died in Padua, Italy, he was born and raised in a wealthy family in Lisbon. Noted by his contemporaries for his forceful preaching and expert knowledge of scripture, he was the second-fastest canonized saint and proclaimed a Doctor of the Church on 16 January 1946. He is also the saint of finding things or lost people.

Luís Figo


Luís Filipe Madeira Caeiro Figo, OIH, is a Portuguese former international footballer. He played as a midfielder for Sporting CP, FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, and Internazionale. He retired from football on 31 May 2009. He won 127 caps for the Portuguese national football team, making him the most capped Portuguese player in history. Figo was the 2000 European Footballer of the Year, the 2001 FIFA World Player of the Year, and was named amongst the FIFA 100. Figo was a winger with a strong free kick and "the ability to take on defenders and score spectacular goals." Figo is one of the few football players to have played for both the Spanish rival clubs FC Barcelona and Real Madrid. He had a successful career highlighted by several trophy wins, including the Portuguese Cup, four La Liga titles, two Spanish Cups, three Spanish Super Cups, one UEFA Champions League title, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, two UEFA Super Cups, one Intercontinental Cup, four Serie A titles, one Italian Cup and three Italian Super Cups.

Raul Meireles


Raul José Trindade Meireles is a Portuguese footballer who plays for Fenerbahçe as a midfielder in the Süper Lig. Raul Meireles started his career as a trainee with Boavista but was loaned to Desportivo das Aves in the Liga de Honra, where he made his professional debut. After a two-year loan spell he returned to Boavista where he made his Primeira Liga debut. By his great performances, Meireles was brought to the Portuguese powerhouse, FC Porto, winning three Primeira Liga titles in a row, adding two Portuguese Cups and three Portuguese Supercups. In 2010 he moved to Liverpool where he won the 2011 PFA Fans' Player of the Year award following a very successful first season in Premier League. On August 2011, Meireles signed for Chelsea, joining his former manager André Villas-Boas with whom he had spent a short period of time. During his debut season at Stamford Bridge, he won the 2012 UEFA Champions League and the 2011–12 FA Cup, his first titles since his arrival to England. In international football Meireles national career began at youth level when he represented the Under-16 side at the 2000 UEFA European Under-16 Football Championship in Israel. In November 2006 he was called up to the senior squad for the first time. He later represented Portugal in the UEFA Euro 2008, 2010 FIFA World Cup and UEFA Euro 2012.

Ricardo Quaresma


Ricardo Andrade Quaresma Bernardo is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as forward . Quaresma began his career at Sporting Clube de Portugal, and has also played for Barcelona, Porto, Internazionale, and Chelsea. He is popular for incorporating a repertoire of tricks into his style of play, including the rabona and trivela. A forward who can play on either flank, with his qualities of speed and finesse a regular problem for opposing defenses.

Fernando Pessoa


Fernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa, was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic, translator, publisher and philosopher, described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language. He also wrote in and translated from English and French.

Fábio Coentrão

Soccer Midfielder

Fábio Alexandre da Silva Coentrão is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Real Madrid in Spain, and the Portuguese national team. Mainly a left back he can also operate as a left winger, and occasionally as a defensive midfielder. After starting playing professionally with Rio Ave, he signed for Benfica at 19, going on to be loaned several times before becoming an important member of the first team, as a left-back. In 2011 he joined Real Madrid. A Portuguese international since 2009, Coentrão represented the nation in one World Cup and one European Championship.

José Saramago


José de Sousa Saramago, GColSE was a Portuguese writer and recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature. His works, some of which can be seen as allegories, commonly present subversive perspectives on historic events, emphasizing the human factor. Harold Bloom described Saramago as "the greatest living novelist" and considers him to be "a permanent part of the Western canon", while James Wood praises "the distinctive tone to his fiction [...] because he narrates his novels as if he were someone both wise and ignorant." More than two million copies of Saramago's books have been sold in Portugal alone and his work has been translated into 25 languages. A proponent of libertarian communism, Saramago was targeted by institutions such as Israel, the Catholic Church, the European Union and the International Monetary Fund, with whom he disagreed on various issues. An atheist, he defended love as an instrument to improve the human condition. In 1992, the Government of Portugal under Prime Minister Aníbal Cavaco Silva ordered the removal of The Gospel According to Jesus Christ from the Aristeion Prize's shortlist, claiming the work was religiously offensive. Disheartened by this political censorship of his work, Saramago went into exile on the Spanish island of Lanzarote, upon which he resided until his death in 2010.

Ricardo Carvalho


Ricardo Alberto Silveira de Carvalho OIH is a Portuguese footballer who plays as a centre back for AS Monaco FC. Carvalho was born in Amarante where he played for the local team, Amarante Futebol Clube. By his great performance as a youngster, he was spotted by the Portuguese powerhouse, Porto, and in 1996 he was brought to FC Porto Junior team. Between 1997 and 2001 he had loan spells at Leça, where he made his professional debut, Vitória de Setúbal and Alverca, but it was in José Mourinho’s reign that he really started to make big strides forward. It was in the 2002–03 season that Carvalho made his name known all around Europe, winning his first domestic league title under Mourinho’s commands, the Portuguese Cup, and the UEFA Cup. His good form led to an international call-up in 2003. In the next season, Carvalho won his second league title in a row, and his first UEFA Champions League title, in which tournament he was named best defender of the tournament. In July 2004, Carvalho transferred to Chelsea for a fee of just under €30 million. With the Blues, he won two Premier League titles in a row and one League Cup in his first two seasons. In 2008, he helped the club reach the UEFA Champions League final for the first time in their history, a game that they lost 6–5 on penalties against Manchester United. In the same year, he was voted by his fellow Chelsea colleagues as Chelsea's 2008 Players' Player of the Year. Two years later, in the 2009–10 season, Carvalho helped the Blues win their first Championship since 2006 and the FA Cup, by winning this last trophy Chelsea have secured the first ever Double in the club's history. In August 2010, after six years with Chelsea, he transferred to Real Madrid for a fee of £6.7 million.

Bruno Alves


Bruno Eduardo Regufe Alves is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Fenerbahçe S.K. in Turkey and the Portuguese national team, as a central defender. He spent most of his professional career at Porto, winning a total of nine titles, seven as first-choice, and appearing in more than 200 official games. He also played three seasons in Russia, with Zenit St. Petersburg. A Portuguese international since 2007, Alves represented the country at the 2010 World Cup and two European Championships.

José Manuel Barroso


José Manuel Durão Barroso is the 11th and current President of the European Commission and a Portuguese politician. He served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 April 2002 to 17 July 2004.

Michelle Larcher de Brito

Tennis Player

Michelle Larcher de Brito is a Portuguese tennis player. Larcher de Brito's family moved to the United States when she was nine years old so she could attend the Nick Bollettieri Tennis Academy in Bradenton, Florida. She was coached by Nick Bollettieri until the end of 2007. Currently she is training full-time with her father, António Larcher de Brito. She achieved a career-high ranking of 76 in July 2009. She is the first Portuguese female player to enter the main draw of a grand slam, which occurred at the 2009 French Open. Her impressive results at such a young age have prompted Nick Bollettieri to tip her as a possible Top 10 player. She is known for her loud grunts while executing shots, being noted for surpassing in decibels the likes of Maria Sharapova, Monica Seles, Victoria Azarenka and Venus and Serena Williams, other famous "grunters". In response to criticism from fellow players about this, she defended herself by saying, "I could [stop grunting], but, you know, it won't feel natural, because it feels like something is missing in my game if I just stop."

João Moutinho

Soccer Midfielder

João Filipe Iria Santos Moutinho is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for AS Monaco FC in Ligue 1 and the Portuguese national team. Mainly a central midfielder he can also operate as a defensive or attacking midfielder, and on either flank. He started his professional career with Sporting, moving in 2010 to Porto and winning 12 major titles between the two clubs combined. A Portuguese international since 2005, Moutinho represented the nation in two European Championships.

Hélder Postiga


Hélder Manuel Marques Postiga is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Valencia CF in Spain, as a striker. After starting professionally at Porto, Postiga went on to have spells in England, France and Greece, before returning to his country with Sporting. A Portuguese international on more than 60 occasions, Postiga represented the country in one World Cup and three European Championships, helping the national team reach the final at Euro 2004.

André Villas-Boas

Football team manager

Luís André de Pina Cabral e Villas-Boas, known as André Villas-Boas and commonly referred to as AVB, is a Portuguese football manager who is currently the manager of Tottenham Hotspur. He spent eight months as manager of Académica, one year as manager of Porto, and nine months as manager of Chelsea. He led Porto to an undefeated 2010–11 season in the Primeira Liga, winning four trophies and becoming the youngest manager ever to win a European title in the process. Unusually for a manager at the top level, he has no experience as a professional player. Born in Porto, Portugal, Villas-Boas was the second child and first son of Luís Filipe Manuel Henrique do Vale Peixoto de Sousa e Villas-Boas and Teresa Maria de Pina Cabral e Silva. Villas-Boas has spoken fluent English since childhood, as his grandmother was from Stockport. At the age of 16, Villas-Boas found himself living in the same apartment block as Sir Bobby Robson, who was then manager of Porto. Following a debate between the two, Robson appointed Villas-Boas to Porto's observation department. Robson arranged for Villas-Boas to obtain the FA coaching qualification, the UEFA C coaching licence in Scotland and for him to study the training methods of Ipswich Town. He later obtained his B licence, A licence and UEFA Pro Licence under the tutelage of Jim Fleeting. Villas-Boas had a short stint as head coach of the British Virgin Islands national team at the age of 21, before he moved on to a career as an assistant coach at Porto under José Mourinho. As Mourinho moved clubs to Chelsea and Internazionale, Villas-Boas followed. Villas-Boas had his first job as British Virgin Islands head coach when only 21 years of age in 1998. In 1999, he resigned as manager.

Carmen Miranda


Carmen Miranda, GCIH was a Portuguese-born Brazilian samba singer, dancer, Broadway actress, and film star who was popular from the 1930s to the 1950s. Miranda began her singing career in 1929, and enjoyed 10 years as a major Brazilian singing star. In 1939 she moved to the United States to perform on Broadway on contract with the American theatre owner Lee Shubert. This led to a Hollywood film career in 1940, with her first film Down Argentine Way. Nicknamed "The Brazilian Bombshell", Miranda is noted for her signature fruit hat outfit she wore in her American films, particularly in 1943's The Gang's All Here. By 1945, she was the highest paid woman in the United States. Miranda made a total of fourteen Hollywood films between 1940 and 1953. Though hailed as a talented performer, her popularity waned by the end of World War II. She later grew to resent the stereotypical "Brazilian Bombshell" image she cultivated and attempted to break free of it with limited success. On 4 August 1955, Miranda unknowingly suffered a mild heart attack while performing during the filming of an episode of The Jimmy Durante Show. She finished the show but died the following morning after suffering a second heart attack.

Henry the Navigator

Noble person

Infante Henry, Duke of Viseu, better known as Henry the Navigator, was an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire and the Age of Discoveries in total. He was responsible for the early development of European exploration and maritime trade with other continents. Henry was the third child of King John I of Portugal, founder of the Aviz dynasty, and of Philippa of Lancaster, John of Gaunt's daughter. Henry encouraged his father to conquer Ceuta, the Muslim port on the North African coast across the Straits of Gibraltar from the Iberian peninsula. He learnt of the opportunities from the Saharan trade routes that terminated there, and became fascinated with Africa in general; he was most intrigued by the Christian legend of Prester John and the expansion of Portuguese trade. Henry is regarded as the patron of Portuguese exploration.

António de Oliveira Salazar


António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GColTE, GColSE was a Portuguese professor and politician who served as the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. His Council of Ministers briefly served as acting President of the Republic in 1951; he was never President of the Republic, but was the virtual dictator of the country in the manner of Franco and Mussolini. He founded and led the Estado Novo, the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal from 1932 to 1974. In 1940, Life called Salazar "the greatest Portuguese since Prince Henry the Navigator". Opposed to communism, socialism, anarchism and liberalism, Salazar's rule was corporatist, conservative, and nationalistic in nature. Its policy envisaged the perpetuation of Portugal as a pluricontinental nation under the doctrine of lusotropicalism, with Angola, Mozambique, and other Portuguese territories as extensions of Portugal itself, with Portugal being a source of civilization and stability to the overseas societies in the African and Asian possessions. Portuguese India was lost following Indian invasion in 1961, prompting the international community to start opposing Salazar's colonial politics as well as initiating a lengthy struggle for the control of the colonies, involving hundreds of thousands of Portuguese soldiers, which ended only in 1975.

Rui Costa

Soccer Midfielder

Rui Manuel César Costa, OIH is a former Portuguese football player and current Director of Football for Sport Lisboa e Benfica. Costa played as an attacking midfielder but was also capable of playing as a deep-lying playmaker, and was renowned for his fine technique, great vision and excellent passing, and is now regarded as one of the greatest midfielders of his generation. In 2004, he was named by Pelé in the FIFA 100, as one of the 125 greatest living football players. Nicknamed "the Maestro", Costa spent the majority of his career with Benfica in Portugal and Fiorentina and A.C. Milan in Italy. In a top-flight career spanning 17 years, he won several trophies including one Primeira Liga title, one Portuguese Cup, one Serie A title, three Italian Cups, one UEFA Champions League title and one UEFA Super Cup. A Portuguese international, Costa amassed 94 caps and scored 26 goals for a selecção and represented the country in three UEFA European Championships and one FIFA World Cup.



Tiago Manuel Dias Correia, better known by his nickname Bébé, is a Portuguese footballer who currently plays as a striker for Paços de Ferreira on loan from English team Manchester United. Abandoned by his parents at a young age, Bébé grew up in a homeless shelter near Lisbon. He began his football career as an amateur with Loures before joining Estrela in 2009. A year later, he was signed by Vitória de Guimarães but transferred almost immediately to Manchester United for a fee of about £7 million, despite manager Alex Ferguson admitting he had never seen Bébé play. Unable to make an impression on the Manchester United first team, he spent time on loan with Turkish side Beşiktaş and back in Portugal with Rio Ave and Paços de Ferreira.

Nuno Gomes


Nuno Miguel Soares Pereira Ribeiro, commonly known as Nuno Gomes, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a striker. He was given the nickname Gomes during childhood after F.C. Porto great Fernando Gomes, and was one of the country's most recognisable offensive players in the 1990s/2000s; he consistently scored for both club and country, and was capable of being a good link-up player, accumulating a number of assists throughout his career, which was spent mainly with Benfica, for which he netted 166 goals in 398 games over the course of 12 professional seasons. Gomes represented Portugal in two World Cups and three European Championships. He helped the national team finish second at Euro 2004 and third at Euro 2000, and won more than 100 caps all categories comprised.

Paulo Ferreira


Paulo Renato Rebocho Ferreira is a retired Portuguese footballer who played for Chelsea as a defender for most of his career. He was known for his versatility and ability to play on both the right and left side of defence.

Pedro I of Brazil


Dom Pedro I, nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned briefly over Portugal, where he also became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, and thus a member of the House of Braganza. When their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro I's father to return to Portugal in April 1821, leaving him to rule Brazil as regent. He had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese government's threat to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazilian side and declared Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October, he was acclaimed Brazilian emperor and by March 1824 had defeated all armies loyal to Portugal. A few months later, Pedro I crushed the short-lived Confederation of the Equator, a failed secession attempt by provincial rebels in Brazil's northeast.

Hugo Almeida


Hugo Miguel Pereira de Almeida is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Beşiktaş J.K. in the Süper Lig, as a centre forward. After failing to establish himself at F.C. Porto, being loaned several times during his contract, he made a name for himself in Germany with Werder Bremen, where he would remain four seasons, reaching one UEFA Cup final and scoring more than 50 official goals. Making his debut for the Portuguese national team in 2004, aged 20, Almeida appeared at the 2010 World Cup and two European Championships.

Pope Damasus I

Religious Leader

Pope Damasus I was the head of the Catholic Church from October 366 to his death in 384. He was born around 305, probably near the city of Egitania, Lusitania, in what is the present-day village of Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal, then part of the Western Roman Empire. His life coincided with the rise of Emperor Constantine I and the reunion and re-division of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, which is associated with the legitimization of Christianity and its later adoption as the official religion of the Roman state in 380. Damasus is known to have been raised in the service of the Basilica of Saint Lawrence outside the Walls in Rome, and following the death of Pope Liberius, he succeeded to the papacy amidst factional violence. A group of Damasus' supporters, previously loyal to his opponent Felix, attacked and killed rivals loyal to Liberius' deacon Ursinus in a riot that required the intervention of Emperor Valentinian I to quell. Damasus faced accusations of murder and adultery in his early years as pope. The neutrality of these claims has come into question with some suggesting that the accusations were motivated by the schismatic conflict with the supporters of Arianism. His personal problems were contrasted with his religious accomplishments, which included restoring Saint Lawrence outside the Walls, encouraging his personal secretary Saint Jerome in his Vulgate translation of the Bible, and presiding over the Council of Rome in 382, which may have set down the canon of Scripture. He also did much to encourage the veneration of the Christian martyrs.

Luís de Camões


Luís Vaz de Camões is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet. His mastery of verse has been compared to that of Shakespeare, Vondel, Homer, Virgil and Dante. He wrote a considerable amount of lyrical poetry and drama but is best remembered for his epic work Os Lusíadas. His collection of poetry The Parnasum of Luís de Camões was lost in his lifetime. The influence of his masterpiece Os Lusíadas is so profound that Portuguese is called the "language of Camões".

Manuel Fernandes


Manuel Henrique Tavares Fernandes, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Beşiktaş J.K. in the Turkish Süper Lig, as a midfielder.

Tiago Mendes


Tiago Cardoso Mendes, known as simply Tiago, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Atlético Madrid. A versatile midfielder, adept as both a central or defensive unit and with good overall skills, he played professionally in five of Europe's major leagues: England, France, Italy, Portugal and Spain. A Portuguese international on nearly 60 occasions during the 2000s, Tiago represented the nation in two World Cups and one European Championship.



Pedro Miguel Carreiro Resendes, OIH, commonly known as Pauleta, is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a striker. During 18 years as a senior, he never played in the Portuguese first division, having spent most of his professional career in Spain and France. Pauleta scored 47 goals in 88 matches for the Portuguese national team, a national record at the time of his retirement. He played for his country in two World Cups and as many European Championships.

Rui Costa

Professional Road Racing Cyclist

Rui Alberto Faria da Costa is a Portuguese professional road bicycle racer, who currently rides for UCI ProTeam Movistar Team. He is best known for winning the 2013 UCI Road World Championships in Tuscany, Italy as well as the 2012 and 2013 editions of Tour de Suisse, the 2011 Grand Prix Cycliste de Montréal and three stages of the Tour de France in 2011 and 2013.

Miguel Veloso

Soccer Midfielder

Miguel Luís Pinto Veloso is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for FC Dynamo Kyiv in Ukraine and the Portuguese national team. Mainly a deep lying playmarker, he is well known for his range of passing and dead ball ability.

Manoel de Oliveira


Manoel Cândido Pinto de Oliveira, GCSE is a Portuguese film director and screenwriter born in Cedofeita, Porto. He first began making films in 1927, when he and some friends attempted to make a film about World War I. In 1931 he completed his first film Douro, Faina Fluvial, a documentary about his home city Porto made in the city symphony genre. He made his feature film debut in 1942 with Aniki-Bóbó and continued to make shorts and documentaries for the next 30 years, gaining a minimal amount of recognition without being considered a major world film director. Among the numerous factors that prevented Oliveira from making more films during this time period were the political situation in Portugal, family obligations and money. In 1971 Oliveira made his second feature narrative film Past and Present, a social satire that both set the standard for his film career afterwards and gained him recognition in the global film community. He continued making films of growing ambition throughout the 1970s and 1980s, gaining critical acclaim and numerous awards. Since the late 1980s he has been one of the most prolific working film directors and continues to make an average of one film per year past the age of 100. In March 2008 he was reported to be the oldest active film director in the world, and is possibly the third oldest film director ever after George Abbott, who lived to be 107, and Spanish film director Miguel Morayta, who died at the age of 105 and 10 months in 2013. He is also the only filmmaker whose active career has spanned from the silent era to the digital age. Among his numerous awards are two Career Golden Lions from the Venice Film Festival.


Soccer Midfielder

Nuno Ricardo de Oliveira Ribeiro, OIH, aka Maniche, is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a central midfielder. Known for his teamwork, stamina and powerful shot, he received his nickname after Benfica's 1980s legendary Danish forward Michael Manniche. He played top flight football in Portugal, Russia, England, Spain, Italy and Germany. In 2004 he helped Porto win the Champions League, one of eight major trophies conquered with that club. Maniche won more than 50 caps for Portugal, representing the nation at Euro 2004 and the 2006 World Cup and finishing runner-up in the former competition.

Nélson Oliveira


Nélson Miguel Castro Oliveira is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Stade Rennais F.C. on loan from S.L. Benfica as a striker.

Paulo Sousa

Soccer Midfielder

Paulo Manuel Carvalho de Sousa, CavIH is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a defensive midfielder, and the current coach of Maccabi Tel Aviv FC. He was a member of the “Portuguese Golden Generation”. Starting his career at Benfica, he also represented Sporting in his country, in a five-year career, and appeared with the national team in one World Cup and two European Championships, gaining more than 50 caps in 11 years. From there onwards Sousa played namely in Italy and in Germany, twice winning the UEFA Champions League, with Juventus and Borussia Dortmund and winning the Intercontinental Cup with Dortmund. His later career was severely hindered by injuries. In the late 2000s he took up coaching, managing several clubs in England and Wales.

Silvestre Varela

Soccer Midfielder

Silvestre Manuel Gonçalves Varela is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for F.C. Porto in the Portuguese first division, as a winger.

John of God

Organization founder

John of God, O.H. was a Portuguese-born soldier turned health-care worker in Spain, whose followers later formed the Brothers Hospitallers of St. John of God, a worldwide Catholic religious institute dedicated to the care of the poor sick and those suffering from mental disorders. He has been declared a saint by the Catholic Church, and is considered one of Spain's leading religious figures.

Miguel Monteiro


Luís Miguel Brito Garcia Monteiro, known as simply Miguel, OIH, is a Portuguese retired footballer who played mainly as a right defender. He played the vast majority of his professional career with Benfica and Valencia, appearing in the vicinity of 200 official games with both clubs and winning a total of four major titles. Miguel gained 59 caps for Portugal during the 2000s, and represented the country in two World Cups and as many European Championships.

Luís Boa Morte

Soccer Midfielder

Luís Boa Morte Pereira is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as an attacking winger, forward and centre midfielder for Hampshire Premier League Division One side Four Marks. Having come through the youth ranks with Sporting Clube de Portugal, Boa Morte received his first big break by joining Premier League side Arsenal in 1997. He also went on to play in England's top flight for Southampton, Fulham and West Ham United. He was released by The Hammers in 2011 and joined Greek side Larissa before moving on to South African side Orlando Pirates. In October 2012 he returned to England and joined fourth tier side Chesterfield.

Henrique Hilário


Henrique Hilário Meireles Sampaio, commonly known as Hilário, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Chelsea in the Premier League, as a goalkeeper. He spent most of his extensive career with Porto and Chelsea, mainly as a backup. Hilario played his only match for the Portugal national football team in 2010.

Aníbal Cavaco Silva


Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC, is the 19th and current President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006. He was previously Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 November 1985 to 28 October 1995. His tenure of ten years was the longest of any Prime Minister since Salazar, and he was the first Portuguese Prime Minister to have won an absolute parliamentary majority under the current constitutional system.

Dulce Pontes

Fado Artist

Dulce José Silva Pontes is a Portuguese songwriter and singer who performs in many musical styles, including pop, folk, and classical music. She is usually defined as a world music artist. Her songs contributed to the 1990s revival of Portuguese urban folk music called fado.

Carla Maciel


Carla Maciel is an actress.

Claudia Varejão


Cláudia Varejão is a film director, cinematographer, film editor, and screenwriter.

António Félix da Costa


António Maria de Mello Breyner Félix da Costa is a Portuguese auto racing driver, best known for winning the Macau Grand Prix invitational Formula Three race in 2012, as well as the Formula Renault 2.0 Northern European Cup in 2009. He is the younger brother of Duarte Félix da Costa, also a racing driver, who primarily competes in sportscar racing. After progressing through various levels of the junior formulae motorsport ladder, Félix da Costa's breakthrough year came during the 2012 season. Having started the season driving for the Carlin team in the GP3 Series, Félix da Costa was selected to join the Red Bull Junior Team, replacing Formula Renault 3.5 Series driver Lewis Williamson, who had failed to score a point in the first three meetings of the season. Félix da Costa assumed Williamson's drive with the Arden Caterham team, where he ultimately won four of the final five races to be held in the campaign en route to fourth position in the final championship standings, just 23 points behind eventual champion Robin Frijns. Félix da Costa will move to the Arden Caterham team full-time for the 2013 season. Both Félix da Costa and Frijns received tests with the Red Bull Racing Formula One team for the Young Drivers' test in Abu Dhabi – Félix da Costa's second such appearance at the tests, after driving for Force India in 2010 – with Félix da Costa setting the pace on the second day. He completed the season with the first Portuguese victory in the Macau Grand Prix in 58 years, leading every racing lap of the meeting en route to victory.

Maria-João Pires


Maria João Pires is a Portuguese-Brazilian pianist.

Manuel I of Portugal


Manuel I, the Fortunate, King of Portugal and the Algarves was the son of Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, Infanta Beatrice of Portugal. His name is associated with a period of Portuguese civilization distinguished by significant achievements both in political affairs and the arts. In spite of its small size and population in comparison to the great land powers of Europe, it was able to acquire an overseas empire of vast proportions during Manuel's reign.

Afonso I of Portugal


Afonso I, more commonly known as Afonso Henriques, nicknamed "the Conqueror", "the Founder" or "the Great" by the Portuguese, and El-Bortukali and Ibn-Arrik by the Moors whom he fought, was the first King of Portugal. He achieved the independence of the southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia, the County of Portugal, from Galicia's overlord, the King of León, in 1139, establishing a new kingdom and doubling its area with the Reconquista, an objective that he pursued until his death, in 1185, after forty-six years of wars against the Moors.

José Maria Eça de Queiroz


José Maria de Eça de Queiroz or Eça de Queirós is generally considered to be the greatest Portuguese writer in the realist style. Zola considered him to be far greater than Flaubert. The London Observer critics rank him with Dickens, Balzac and Tolstoy. Eça never officially rejected Catholicism, and in many of his private letters he even invokes Jesus and uses expressions typical of Catholics, but was very critical of the Catholic Church of his time, and of Christianity in general as is evident in some of his novels. During his lifetime, the spelling was "Eça de Queiroz" and this is the form that appears on many editions of his works; the modern standard Portuguese spelling is "Eça de Queirós".

Anders Zorn

Painting Artist

Anders Leonard Zorn was one of Sweden’s foremost artists who obtained international success as a painter, sculptor and printmaker in etching.

Antonio Damasio


Antonio Damasio is a University Professor and David Dornsife Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Southern California, an Adjunct Professor at the Salk Institute, and the author of several books describing his scientific thinking. "As a leading neuroscientist, Damasio has dared to speculate on neurobiological data, and has offered a theory about the relationship between human emotions, human rationality, and the underlying biology." Prior to joining USC in 2005, Damasio was M.W. Van Allen Professor and Head of Neurology at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.

Vítor Baía


Vítor Manuel Martins Baía, OIH, is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a goalkeeper. His career was intimately connected with F.C. Porto, which he started representing professionally still in his teens, helping it to 26 titles and eventually remaining with the club in an ambassadorial role. Also having played for Barcelona, Baía appeared with the Portuguese national team in two European Championships and the 2002 World Cup.

Pedro Lamy

Racing driver

José Pedro Mourão Lamy Viçoso, OIH is a Portuguese professional racing driver. He was the first Portuguese driver to score a point in a World Championship event, in the 1995 Australian Grand Prix, for Minardi.

Miguel Lopes


Hugo Miguel Almeida Costa Lopes is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Olympique Lyonnais on loan from Sporting Clube de Portugal as a right defender.

Jorge Jesus

Soccer Midfielder

Jorge Fernando Pinheiro de Jesus is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a right midfielder, and the current manager of S.L. Benfica.

Maria de Medeiros


Maria de Medeiros Esteves Vitorino de Almeida, DamSE, better known as Maria de Medeiros, is a Portuguese actress, director, and singer who has been involved in both European and American film productions.


Soccer Midfielder

Adelino André Vieira Freitas, commonly known as Vieirinha, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for VfL Wolfsburg in the Bundesliga, as a winger. Ambidextrous he started playing for Porto, but spent most of his professional career in Greece with PAOK.

John VI of Portugal


John VI was King of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves from 1816 to 1822, and, although de facto the United Kingdom over which he ruled ceased to exist, he remained so de jure from 1822 to 1825; after the recognition of Brazilian independence under the 1825 Treaty of Rio de Janeiro, he continued as King of Portugal and the Algarves until his death in 1826. Under the said Treaty he also became Titular Emperor of Brazil for life, while his son, Emperor Pedro I, was both de facto and de jure the monarch of the newly independent country. Born in Lisbon in 1767, the son of Peter III of Portugal, and Queen Maria I, he was originally an infante of Portugal, and only became heir to the throne when his older brother, José, Prince of Brazil, died in 1788, of smallpox, at the age of 27. Before his accession to the Portuguese throne, John VI bore the titles of Duke of Braganza and Duke of Beja, as well as the title of Prince of Brazil. He served, from 1799, as Prince Regent of Portugal, due to the mental illness of his mother, the Queen. Eventually, he succeeded his mother as monarch of the Portuguese Empire, with no real change in his authority, since, as Regent, he already possessed absolute powers.

Pedro Passos Coelho


Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho is a Portuguese politician, leader of the Social Democratic Party and Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the PSD. A business manager by trade, he has led the XIX Governo Constitucional as head of government since 21 June 2011.

Manuel II of Portugal


Manuel II was the last King of Portugal, "the Patriot" or "the Unfortunate", ascending the throne after the assassination of his father, King Carlos I of Portugal, and his elder brother, Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal. Before ascending the throne he was Duke of Beja. His reign ended with the dissolution of the monarchy with the 5 October 1910 revolution, and Manuel lived the rest of his life in an exile enforced by the new Portuguese First Republic.

Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal


D. Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Marquis of Pombal, 1st Count of Oeiras was an 18th-century Portuguese statesman. He was Secretary of the State of the Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered today to have been the de facto head of government. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. He implemented sweeping economic policies in Portugal to regulate commercial activity and standardize quality throughout the country. Pombal was instrumental in weakening the grip of the Inquisition. The term Pombaline is used to describe not only his tenure, but also the architectural style which formed after the great earthquake. Pombal, who was considered an estrangeirado, introduced many fundamental administrative, educational, economic, and ecclesiastical reforms justified in the name of "reason" and instrumental in advancing secularization. However, historians argue that Pombal’s "enlightenment," while far-reaching, was primarily a mechanism for enhancing autocracy at the expense of individual liberty and especially an apparatus for crushing opposition, suppressing criticism, and furthering colonial economic exploitation as well as intensifying print censorship and consolidating personal control and profit.

Mário Soares


Mário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE, Portuguese politician, served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1976 to 1978 and from 1983 to 1985, and subsequently as the 17th President of Portugal from 1986 to 1996.

Isabella of Portugal

Noble person

Isabella of Portugal was an Infanta of Portugal, by birth, and a Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Germany, Italy, Spain, Naples and Sicily, Duchess of Burgundy etc. as the spouse of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. She was the daughter of Manuel I of Portugal and Maria of Aragon. She served as regent of Spain during the absence of her spouse for long periods.

Miguel I of Portugal

Noble person

D. Miguel I, "the Absolutist" or "the Traditionalist", was the King of Portugal between 1828 and 1834, the seventh child and third son of King João VI and his queen, Carlota Joaquina of Spain. Following his exile as a result of his actions in the Abrilada, Miguel returned to Portugal as regent to his niece Queen Maria II of Portugal, and potential royal consort. As regent, he claimed the Portuguese throne in his own right, since according to the so-called Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom his older brother Pedro IV and therefore the latter's daughter had lost their rights from the moment that Pedro had made war on Portugal and become the sovereign of a foreign state. This led to a difficult political situation, during which many people were killed, imprisoned, persecuted or sent into exile, and which culminated in the Portuguese Liberal Wars between authoritarian absolutists and progressive constitutionalists. In the end Miguel was forced from the throne and lived the last 32 years of his life in exile.

Gil Vicente


Gil Vicente, called the Trobadour, was a Portuguese playwright and poet who acted in and directed his own plays. Considered the chief dramatist of Portugal he is sometimes called the "Portuguese Plautus,"[3] often referred to as the "Father of Portuguese drama" and as one of Western literature's greatest playwrights.[1] Vicente worked in Portuguese as much as he worked in Spanish[3] and is thus, with Juan del Encina, considered joint-father of Spanish drama. Vicente was attached to the courts of the Portuguese kings Manuel I and John III. He rose to prominence as a playwright largely on account of the influence of Queen Dowager Leonor, who noticed him as he participated in court dramas and subsequently commissioned him to write his first theatrical work. He may also have been identical to an accomplished goldsmith of the same name,[2] creator of the famous monstrance of Belém, and master of rhetoric of King Manuel I. His plays and poetry, written in both Portuguese and Spanish, were a reflection of the changing times during the transition from Middle Ages to Renaissance and created a balance between the former time of rigid mores and hierarchical social structure and the new society in which this order was undermined.[2]


Soccer Midfielder

Francisco José Rodrigues da Costa, OIH, aka Costinha, is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a defensive midfielder, and a current coach. Best known for his tackling and positioning, he played professionally in five different countries – having arrived in the first division of his own at nearly 27 – and was also a Portuguese international. In 2004 he helped Porto win the Champions League, winning a total of eight trophies with that club. Costinha gained more than 50 caps with Portugal, appearing with the national team in one World Cup and two European Championships, being part of the squad that reached the final in Euro 2004.

Maria I of Portugal


Maria I was Queen of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves. Known as Maria the Pious, or Maria the Mad, she was the first undisputed Queen regnant of Portugal. Her reign would be a noteworthy one. With Napoleon's European conquests, her court, then under the direction of Prince Dom João, the Prince Regent, moved to the then Portuguese colony of Brazil. Later on, Brazil would be elevated from the rank of a colony to that of a Kingdom, the Kingdom of Brazil, with the consequential formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves.

Vítor Pereira

Football player

Vítor Manuel de Oliveira Lopes Pereira, also known as Vítor Gravatas is a Portuguese football manager, currently in charge of Al-Ahli SC.

Hugo Viana

Soccer Midfielder

Hugo Miguel Ferreira Gomes Viana is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Al Ahli Club in the United Arab Emirates, as a central midfielder. His main assets are good set-pieces and passing skills. After starting out at Sporting he moved abroad at the age of 19, going on to have unassuming spells in England and Spain before settling back in his country with Braga. Viana represented Portugal in two World Cups and Euro 2012, also appearing with the under-23s at the 2004 Summer Olympics.

Eliseu Pereira dos Santos

Soccer Midfielder

Eliseu Pereira dos Santos, simply known as Eliseu, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Málaga CF in Spain. A left winger who can also operate as a left back, he is mostly known for his speed.

George Grey


Sir George Grey, KCB was a soldier, explorer, Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony, the 11th Premier of New Zealand and a writer.

Paulo Bento

Soccer Midfielder

Paulo Jorge Gomes Bento is a Portuguese retired footballer, and the current manager of Portugal. A defensive midfielder with tackling ability and workrate as his main assets, he played for two of the major three teams in his country, amassing top division totals of 284 games and 16 goals over the course of 11 seasons, and also spent four years in Spain. He represented the Portuguese national team in one World Cup and one European Championship. Bento took up a coaching career, managing Sporting during four years and four months, with relative success, and also being in charge of the national team.

Fernando Couto


Fernando Manuel Silva Couto, OIH is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as a central defender. During a 21-year professional career he played in a number of top teams in Portugal, Spain and Italy, appearing in nearly 600 official games and winning the double in each country, as well as three other UEFA club trophies. At international level, Couto represented the Portuguese national team in more than 100 games, taking part in the 2002 World Cup as well as three European Championships.

Pedro Miguel da Silva Mendes

Soccer Midfielder

Pedro Miguel da Silva Mendes is a Portuguese former footballer who played as a midfielder. Starting his career with home town club Vitória de Guimarães, Mendes won the UEFA Champions League with FC Porto in the 2003–04 season. He then moved to the English Premier League, initially with Tottenham Hotspur in 2004, where he famously scored a 50-yard goal against Manchester United, which was disallowed. He then moved to his second English club, Portsmouth, before a stint at Scottish Premier League side Rangers. Mendes was capped ten times by the Portuguese national team and was a member of their squad for the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

Sérgio Conceição

Soccer Midfielder

Sérgio Paulo Marceneiro da Conceição is a Portuguese retired footballer who played mostly as a right winger, and the current manager of Académica de Coimbra. Conceição was known for his speed and strength, combined with his good dribbling and crossing skills, and fairly accurate shooting. During his extensive career he played for ten different teams, in five countries: after gaining international recognition with Porto he switched to Italy, where he appeared for three clubs. Having won more than 50 caps for Portugal, Conceição represented the nation in Euro 2000 and the 2002 FIFA World Cup.

José Sócrates


José Sócrates Carvalho Pinto de Sousa, GCIH, commonly known as José Sócrates, is a Portuguese politician who was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 12 March 2005 to 21 June 2011. For the second half of 2007, he acted as the President-in-Office of the Council of the European Union. In addition to these posts, José Sócrates was Portugal's Minister for Youth and Sports and one of the organisers of the UEFA Euro 2004 football championship in Portugal, as well as being a former Environment Minister in the governments of António Guterres. On 23 March 2011, he submitted his resignation to the president after parliament rejected his government's austerity measures in a vote, leading to the Portuguese legislative election of 2011. After losing the election, held on 5 June 2011, he resigned as Secretary-General of the Socialist Party.

Ana Moura

Fado Artist

Ana Moura is an internationally recognized Portuguese fado singer, and the youngest fadista to be nominated for a Dutch Edison Award.

Frederico Gil

Tennis Player

Frederico Gil is a Portuguese professional tennis player who competes on the ATP Tour. In April 2011, he achieved a career-high singles ranking of World No. 62, the highest ranking a Portuguese player had ever held until September when Rui Machado placed No. 61 in the rankings. He was the first Portuguese to reach an ATP Tour final at the 2010 Estoril Open, and the first to achieve a career prize money over one million dollars. As a qualifier, Gil reached the quarterfinals of the 2011 Monte-Carlo Masters. His former coaches were Juan Manuel Esparcia and Bernardo Mota, whilst he is currently coached by former player João Cunha e Silva.

Fernando Meira


Fernando José da Silva Freitas Meira is a Portuguese retired footballer who played mainly as a central defender. In his country, he represented most notably Vitória de Guimarães, also playing one year with Benfica. After a lengthy spell in Germany with Stuttgart, he went on to appear for teams in Turkey, Russia and Spain. A strong and skillful defender, Meira gained more than 50 caps for the Portuguese national team, representing the nation in one World Cup and one European Championship.

Ricardo Costa


Ricardo Miguel Moreira da Costa is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Valencia CF in Spain. Mainly a central defender, he can occasionally play as a full back. After making his senior debuts with Porto, he went on to play in Germany, France and Spain, namely spending several seasons with Valencia in the latter country. A Portuguese international since 2005, Costa represented the nation in two World Cups and Euro 2012.


Soccer Midfielder

Sérgio Paulo Barbosa Valente, aka Duda, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Málaga CF as a left winger. He is mostly known for his set pieces and crossing ability, and spent his entire professional career in Spain, collecting more than 300 official appearances for four clubs.

João Vieira Pinto


João Manuel Vieira Pinto is a Portuguese retired footballer who played mostly as a forward. Blessed with formidable playmaker skills and scoring ability, he made his name mostly at a domestic level and as a key figure in the Portuguese national team's "Golden Generation", collecting 138 caps and scoring 35 goals all categories comprised and representing the country in one World Cup and two European Championships. In the club level Pinto started his career with Boavista, but it was mainly associated with two of the biggest clubs in the country, Benfica and Sporting, with which he won one national championship each for a total of six major titles combined. Over the course of 19 first division seasons, he played in 475 games and netted 116 goals.

José Afonso

Musical Artist

José Manuel Cerqueira Afonso dos Santos, known as Zeca Afonso or just Zeca, was born in Aveiro, Portugal, the son of José Nepomuceno Afonso, a judge, and Maria das Dores. Zeca is among the most influential folk and political musicians in Portuguese history. He became an icon among Portuguese left-wing activists due to the role of his music in the resistance against the dictatorial regime of Oliveira Salazar, resistance that triumphed in 1974 with the pro-democratic leftist military coup of the Carnation Revolution. His song Grândola, Vila Morena is closely associated with the revolution. In the ensuing revolutionary process, Zeca was a very active musician and continued composing political and folk songs, often criticizing the post-revolutionary changes. Years after his death, Zeca Afonso is still widely listened to, not only in Portugal, but also abroad.

Lúcia Santos


Lúcia de Jesus dos Santos – Sister Mary Lucy of Jesus and of the Immaculate Heart, better known as Sister Lúcia of Fátima – was a Roman Catholic Discalced Carmelite nun from Portugal. She was one of three children who claimed to have witnessed a series of apparitions of the Virgin Mary in Fátima, Portugal, in 1917.

Marie Myriam


Marie Myriam is a French singer of Portuguese origins. She has a daughter Laureen born in 1982 and a son Rick born in 1990. Representing France, she won the Eurovision Song Contest in 1977 with L'oiseau et l'enfant with music by Jean Paul Cara and words by Joe Gracy. The single reached #42 in the UK Singles Chart in June 1977. In 1981, Myriam also represented France in the Yamaha Music Festival with the song "Sentimentale"; she came in ninth place. In recent years, she has read out the votes of the French Jury at the Eurovision Song Contest. She made an appearance at the 50th anniversary concert in Copenhagen, Denmark, October 2005 as a guest presenter and performer. The same year, Myriam wrote the introduction to the French edition of The Eurovision Song Contest – The Official History by John Kennedy O'Connor.