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Portugal country facts

Portuguese Republic Europe Lisbon 10,813,834 inhabitants 92,090 sq km 117.43 inhabitants/sq km euros (EUR) population evolution

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Following its heyday as a global maritime power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence of Brazil, its wealthiest colony, in 1822. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades, repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year, Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal is a founding member of NATO and entered the EC (now the EU) in 1986.



Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain

Geographic coordinates

39 30 N, 8 00 W

Area (sq km)

total: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries (km)

total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km

Coastline (km)

1,793 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south


mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m

Natural resources

fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower

Land use (%)

arable land: 11.88%
permanent crops: 7.71%
other: 80.41% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

5,837 sq km (2007)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

68.7 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 8.46 cu km/yr (12%/18%/69%)
per capita: 812 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

Azores subject to severe earthquakes
volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira

Environment - current issues

soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification

Geography - note

Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

People and Society


noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese

Ethnic groups (%)

homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal

Languages (%)

Portuguese (official), Mirandese (official, but locally used)

Religions (%)

Roman Catholic 81%, other Christian 3.3%, other (includes Jewish, Muslim, other) 0.6%, none 6.8%, unspecified 8.3%
notes: represents population 15 years of age and older (2011 est.)


10,813,834 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 15.9% (male 893,902/female 821,062)
15-24 years: 11.4% (male 654,102/female 579,440)
25-54 years: 42.2% (male 2,304,503/female 2,260,556)
55-64 years: 11.9% (male 599,380/female 685,279)
65 years and over: 18.4% (male 824,062/female 1,191,548) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Portugal

Median age (years)

total: 41.1 years
male: 39 years
female: 43.3 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

0.12% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

9.42 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

10.97 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

2.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 61.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.91% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

LISBON (capital) 2.843 million; Porto 1.367 million (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.69 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

8 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 4.48 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.92 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.02 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 79.01 years
male: 75.76 years
female: 82.47 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

1.52 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

10.4% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

3.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 99.9% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 0.1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

0.6% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

42,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

fewer than 500 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

24% (2008)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

5.6% of GDP (2010)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.4%
male: 97%
female: 94% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 16 years
male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2010)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 (%)

total: 37.6%
male: 36.4%
female: 39.1% (2012)


Country name

conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal

Government type

republic; parliamentary democracy


name: Lisbon
geographic coordinates: 38 43 N, 9 08 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

Administrative divisions

18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa (Lisbon), Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu


1143 (Kingdom of Portugal recognized); 5 October 1910 (republic proclaimed)

National holiday

Portugal Day (Dia de Portugal), 10 June (1580); note - also called Camoes Day, the day that revered national poet Luis de Camoes (1524-80) died


several previous; latest adopted 2 April 1976, effective 25 April 1976; amended several times, last in 2005 (2013)

Legal system

civil law system; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 9 March 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Pedro Manuel PASSOS COELHO Mamede (since 21 June 2011)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 January 2011 (next to be held in January 2016); following legislative elections which must be held by October 2015, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Anibal CAVACO SILVA reelected president; percent of vote - Anibal CAVACO SILVA 53%, Manuel ALEGRE 19.8%, Fernando NOBRE 14.1%, Francisco LOPES 7.1%, Manuel COELHO 4.5%, Defensor MOURA 1.6%

Legislative branch

unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 5 June 2011 (next to be held by October 2015)
election results: percent of vote by party - PPD/PSD 38%, PS 28%, CDS/PP 11%, PCP/PEV (see CDU) 7%, BE 5%, other 11%; seats by party - PPD/PSD 108, PS 74, CDS/PP 24, PCP/PEV (see CDU) 16, BE 8

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (consists of 12 justices); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional (consists of 13 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president and appointed by the Assembly of the Republic; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Court judges - 10 elected by the Assembly and 3 elected by the other Constitutional Court judges; judges elected for 6-year non-renewable terms
subordinate courts: Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo); Audit Court (Tribunal de Contas); appellate, district, and municipal courts

Political parties and leaders

Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS]
Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Pedro PASSOS COELHO]
Socialist Party or PS [Antonio Jose SEGURO]
The Left Bloc or BE [Joao Pedro Furtado da Cunha SEMEDO and Catarina Soares MARTINS
Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA] (includes Portuguese Communist Party or PCP and Ecologist Party ("The Greens") or PEV)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Armed Forces Officers' Association (AOFA) [Colonel Pereira CRACEL]
the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages, precarious labor conditions, and unemployment)
the General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (UGT) [Carlos SILVA]
Portuguese National Workers' Conference (CGTP) [Armenio CARLOS]
TugaLeaks (a website that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing diverse protest action)
other: the media; labor unions

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, CD, CE, CERN, CPLP, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club (associate), PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIT, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Nuno Filipe Alves Salvador e BRITO (since 10 February 2011)
chancery: 2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 350-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (NJ), San Francisco
consulate(s): New Bedford (MA), Providence (RI)

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Robert A. SHERMAN (since 12 February 2014)
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon
mailing address: Apartado 43033, 1601-301 Lisboa; PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 726-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag description

two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the national coat of arms (armillary sphere and Portuguese shield) centered on the dividing line; explanations for the color meanings are ambiguous, but a popular interpretation has green symbolizing hope and red the blood of those defending the nation

National symbol(s)

armillary sphere (a spherical astrolabe modeling objects in the sky and representing the Republic)

National anthem

name: "A Portugesa" (The Song of the Portuguese)
lyrics/music: Henrique LOPES DE MENDOCA/Alfredo KEIL
note: adopted 1910; "A Portuguesa" was originally written to protest the Portuguese monarchy's acquiescence to the 1890 British ultimatum forcing Portugal to give up areas of Africa; the lyrics refer to the "insult" that resulted from the event


Economy - overview

Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community - the EU's predecessor - in 1986. Over the following two decades, successive governments privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating the euro on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU members. The economy grew by more than the EU average for much of the 1990s, but the rate of growth slowed in 2001-08. The economy contracted in 2009, and fell again from 2011 to 2013, as the government implemented spending cuts and tax increases to comply with conditions of an EU-IMF financial rescue package, signed in May 2011. Austerity measures also have contributed to record unemployment and a wave of emigration not seen since the 1960s. Booming exports will contribute to growth and employment in 2014, but the need to continue to reduce private- and public-sector debt could weigh on consumption and investment. The government of Pedro PASSOS COELHO has stated its intention to reduce labor market rigidity, and, this, along with steps to trim the budget deficit, could make Portugal more attractive to foreign investors. The government reduced the budget deficit from 10.1% of GDP in 2009 to 5.1% in 2013, lower than the EU-IMF fiscal target of 5.5%. Despite these efforts, public debt has continued to grow and, in 2013, stands among the highest in the EU. As a result, the government may have difficulty regaining full bond market financing when the EU-IMF financing program expires in May 2014.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$243.3 billion (2013 est.)
$247.7 billion (2012 est.)
$256 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$219.3 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

-1.8% (2013 est.)
-3.2% (2012 est.)
-1.3% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$22,900 (2013 est.)
$23,400 (2012 est.)
$24,000 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 2.6%
industry: 22.2%
services: 75.2% (2013 est.)

Labor force

5.395 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 11.7%
industry: 28.5%
services: 59.8% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate (%)

16.8% (2013 est.)
15.7% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)

18% (2006)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: 3.1%
highest 10%: 28.4% (1995 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

38.5 (2007)
35.6 (1995)


revenues: $95.49 billion
expenditures: $106.8 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

43.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-5.1% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

127.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
123.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

0.4% (2013 est.)
2.8% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)

0.75% (31 December 2013)
1.5% (31 December 2010)
note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area

Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

6% (31 December 2013 est.)
6.37% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$86.57 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$88.92 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders

Stock of broad money

$283.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$301.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$408.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$433.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$65.53 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$61.69 billion (31 December 2011)
$82 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Agriculture - products

grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, dairy products; fish


textiles, clothing, footwear, wood and cork, paper, chemicals, auto parts, base metals, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications; dairy products, wine, other foodstuffs; ship construction and refurbishment; tourism

Industrial production growth rate (%)

-1% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

$1 billion (2013 est.)
-$3.365 billion (2012 est.)


$61 billion (2013 est.)
$58.29 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

agricultural products, food products, wine, oil products, chemical products, plastics and rubber, hides, leather, wood and cork, wood pulp and paper, textile materials, clothing, footwear, machinery and tools, base metals

Exports - partners (%)

Spain 22.7%, Germany 12.4%, France 11.9%, Angola 6.5%, UK 5.3%, Netherlands 4.2% (2012)


$59 billion (2013 est.)
$72.35 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

agricultural products, chemical products, vehicles and other transport material, optical and precision instruments, computer accessories and parts, semi-conductors and related devices, oil products, base metals, food products, textile materials

Imports - partners (%)

Spain 32%, Germany 11.5%, France 6.7%, Italy 5.3%, Netherlands 4.9% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$22.66 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$21.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

External debt ($)

$508.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$482.2 billion (31 December 2011)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$121.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$117.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$71.26 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$71.26 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)

Fiscal year

calendar year


Electricity - production (kWh)

49.92 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

50.26 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

2.873 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

10.76 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

18.92 million kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

49% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

21.5% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

24.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

5,250 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

222,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

252,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

259,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

61,010 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

84,080 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

4.904 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

5.143 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

5.185 billion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

54.17 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

4.558 million (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

12.312 million (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: Portugal's telephone system has a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open-wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: country code - 351; a combination of submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, North and East Africa, South Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and the US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores (2010)

Broadcast media

Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP),the publicly-owned TV broadcaster, operates 2 domestic channels and external service channels to Africa; overall, roughly 40 domestic TV stations; viewers have widespread access to international broadcasters with more than half of all households connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems; publicly owned radio operates 3 national networks and provides regional and external services; several privately owned national radio stations and some 300 regional and local commercial radio stations (2008)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

3.748 million (2012)

Internet users

5.168 million (2009)



64 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 43
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 21
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 20 (2013)

Pipelines (km)

gas 1,344 km; oil 11 km; refined products 188 km (2013)

Railways (km)

total: 3,319 km
broad gauge: 2,700 km 1.668-m gauge (1,436 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 192 km 1.000-m gauge; 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2008)

Roadways (km)

total: 82,900 km
paved: 71,294 km (includes 2,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 11,606 km (2008)

Waterways (km)

210 km (on Douro River from Porto) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 109
by type: bulk carrier 8, cargo 35, carrier 1, chemical tanker 21, container 7, liquefied gas 6, passenger 13, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 3, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 9
foreign-owned: 81 (Belgium 8, Colombia 1, Denmark 4, Germany 14, Greece 2, Italy 12, Japan 9, Mexico 1, Norway 2, Spain 18, Sweden 3, Switzerland 3, US 4)
registered in other countries: 15 (Cyprus 2, Malta 3, Panama 10) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Leixoes, Lisbon, Setubal, Sines


Military branches

Portuguese Army (Exercito Portuguesa), Portuguese Navy (Marinha Portuguesa; includes Marine Corps), Portuguese Air Force (Forca Aerea Portuguesa, FAP) (2013)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but conscription possible if insufficient volunteers available; women serve in the armed forces, on naval ships since 1993, but are prohibited from serving in some combatant specialties; reserve obligation to age 35 (2012)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 2,566,264
females age 16-49: 2,458,297 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 2,103,080
females age 16-49: 2,018,004 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 62,208
female: 54,786 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures (% of GDP)

1.29% of GDP (2014)
1.2% of GDP (2013)
1.78% of GDP (2012)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz

Refugees and internally displaced persons

stateless persons: 553 (2012)

Illicit drugs

seizing record amounts of Latin American cocaine destined for Europe; a European gateway for Southwest Asian heroin; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

Largest cities of Portugal

These are the 50 largest cities of Portugal ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Lisbon 517,798
2 Porto 249,630
3 Amadora 178,856
4 Braga 121,393
5 Setúbal 117,109
6 Coimbra 106,580
7 Queluz 103,398
8 Funchal 98,041
9 Vila Nova de Gaia 70,810
10 Loures 66,230
11 Rio de Mouro 54,695
12 Odivelas 54,623
13 Aveiro 54,161
14 Amora 52,577
15 Corroios 52,517
16 Barreiro 51,279
17 Rio Tinto 49,966
18 São Domingos de Rana 46,717
19 Évora 45,851
20 Leiria 45,111
21 Faro 41,355
22 Sesimbra 41,133
23 Guimarães 40,603
24 Portimão 38,486
25 Cascais 36,436
26 Maia 36,425
27 Almada 34,007
28 Castelo Branco 33,479
29 Alcabideche 33,315
30 Câmara de Lobos 32,209
31 Arrentela 30,156
32 Montijo 30,010
33 Santarém 29,385
34 Olhão 29,238
35 Póvoa de Varzim 29,044
36 Senhora da Hora 28,929
37 Marinha Grande 28,915
38 Póvoa de Santa Iria 28,900
39 Guarda 28,502
40 Matosinhos 28,069
41 Gondomar 27,690
42 Águas Santas 27,686
43 Vila do Conde 27,642
44 Caldas da Rainha 26,647
45 Canidelo 26,430
46 Viseu 26,364
47 Sintra 26,193
48 Paço de Arcos 25,974
49 São Mamede de Infesta 25,939
50 Torres Vedras 24,443