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Nepal country facts

Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal South Asia Kathmandu 30,986,975 inhabitants 147,181 sq km 210.54 inhabitants/sq km Nepalese rupees (NPR) population evolution



In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Reforms in 1990 established a multiparty democracy within the framework of a constitutional monarchy. An insurgency led by Maoists broke out in 1996. The ensuing 10-year civil war between Maoist and government forces witnessed the dissolution of the cabinet and parliament and assumption of absolute power by the king in 2002. Several weeks of mass protests in April 2006 were followed by several months of peace negotiations between the Maoists and government officials, and culminated in a late 2006 peace accord and the promulgation of an interim constitution. Following a nationwide election in April 2008, the newly formed Constituent Assembly (CA) declared Nepal a federal democratic republic and abolished the monarchy at its first meeting the following month. The CA elected the country's first president in July. Between 2008 and 2011 there were four different coalition governments, led twice by the United Communist Party of Nepal-Maoist, which received a plurality of votes in the 2008 CA election, and twice by the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist (UML). After the CA failed to draft a constitution by the May 2012 deadline set by the Supreme Court, then Prime Minister Baburam BHATTARAI dissolved the CA. Months of negotiations ensued until March 2013 when the major political parties agreed to create an interim government headed by then Chief Justice Khil Raj REGMI with a mandate to hold elections for a new CA. Elections were held in November 2013, in which and the Nepali Congress won the largest share of the seats in the CA and in February 2014 formed a coalition government with the second place UML and with Nepali Congress President Sushil KOIRALA as prime minister



Southern Asia, between China and India

Geographic coordinates

28 00 N, 84 00 E

Area (sq km)

total: 147,181 sq km
land: 143,351 sq km
water: 3,830 sq km

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries (km)

total: 2,926 km
border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline (km)

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south


Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill region, rugged Himalayas in north

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Kanchan Kalan 70 m
highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m (highest point in Asia)

Natural resources

quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use (%)

arable land: 16%
permanent crops: 0.8%
other: 83.2% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

11,680 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

210.2 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 9.5 cu km/yr (2%/0%/98%)
per capita: 334.7 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards

severe thunderstorms; flooding; landslides; drought and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons

Environment - current issues

deforestation (overuse of wood for fuel and lack of alternatives); contaminated water (with human and animal wastes, agricultural runoff, and industrial effluents); wildlife conservation; vehicular emissions

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

landlocked; strategic location between China and India; contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks, including Mount Everest and Kanchenjunga - the world's tallest and third tallest - on the borders with China and India respectively

People and Society


noun: Nepali (singular and plural)
adjective: Nepali

Ethnic groups (%)

Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19%
note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census (2011 est.)

Languages (%)

Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2%
note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)

Religions (%)

Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecifed 0.2% (2011 est.)


30,986,975 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 31.6% (male 4,989,268/female 4,805,381)
15-24 years: 22.6% (male 3,521,421/female 3,484,203)
25-54 years: 35.7% (male 5,273,079/female 5,775,404)
55-64 years: 5.6% (male 847,431/female 886,760)
65 years and over: 4.5% (male 648,917/female 755,111) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Nepal

Median age (years)

total: 22.9 years
male: 22.2 years
female: 23.6 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

1.82% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

21.07 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

6.62 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

3.71 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 17% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

KATHMANDU (capital) 1.015 million (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.87 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

170 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 40.43 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 67.19 years
male: 65.88 years
female: 68.56 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

2.3 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

5.4% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

0.21 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

4.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 90.3% of population
rural: 87.6% of population
total: 88.1% of population
unimproved: urban: 9.7% of population
rural: 12.4% of population
total: 11.9% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 51.2% of population
rural: 33.7% of population
total: 36.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 48.8% of population
rural: 66.3% of population
total: 63.3% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

0.3% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

48,700 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

4,100 (2012 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and dengue fever (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

1.4% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight (%)

29.1% (2011)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

4.7% of GDP (2010)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.4%
male: 71.1%
female: 46.7% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 13 years (2011)


Country name

conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
conventional short form: Nepal
local long form: Sanghiya Loktantrik Ganatantra Nepal
local short form: Nepal

Government type

federal democratic republic


name: Kathmandu
geographic coordinates: 27 43 N, 85 19 E
time difference: UTC+5.75 (10.75 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

14 zones (anchal, singular and plural); Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali, Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani, Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti


1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan SHAH)

National holiday

Republic Day, 29 May


several previous; latest entered into force 15 January 2007 (interim); note -a Constituent Assembly (CA) elected in 2008 to draft and promulgate a new constitution was unsuccessful and was disolved in mid-2012; a new CA was elected in late 2013 and the parties have committed to promulgating a new constitution by mid-February 2015 (2014)

Legal system

English common law and Hindu legal concepts

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Ram Baran YADAV (since 23 July 2008); Vice President Paramananda JHA (since 23 July 2008)
head of government: Prime Minister Sushil KOIRALA (since 11 February 2014)
cabinet: Prime Minister Koirala on 25 February 2014 appointed the cabinet ministers; the cabinet is dominated by the Nepali Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal-United Marxist-Leninist
elections: president elected by Parliament; term extends until the new constitution is promulgated; president elected on 21 July 2008 (next election NA)
election results: Ram Baran YADAV elected president by the Constituent Assembly in second round; Ram Baran YADAV 308 votes, Ram Jaja Prasad SINGH 282

Legislative branch

unicameral Constituent Assembly (601 seats; 240 members elected by direct popular vote, 335 by proportional representation, and 26 appointed by the Cabinet (Council of Ministers); note - interim government Chairman REGMI convened Nepal's second Constituency Assembly on 22 January 2014
elections: last held on 19 November 2013 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - NC 26%, CPN-UML 24%, Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) 15%, Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal 7%; other 26%; seats by party - NC 196, CPN-UML 175, UCPN(M) 80, Rastriya Prajantantra Party Nepal 24, other smaller parties 100; note - 26 seats filled by the new Cabinet have not yet been appointed

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and up to 14 judges
note - Nepal's judiciary was restructured under its 2007 Interim Constitution
judge selection and term of office: the Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council; other judges are appointed by the prime minister on the recommendation of the Judicial Council; judges serve until age 65
subordinate courts: appellate and district courts

Political parties and leaders

note: 120 political parties participated in the 19 November 2013 election and the 30 parties listed below were elected to serve in the Constituent Assembly
Akhanda Nepal Party [Kumar KHADKA]
Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist [C.P. MAINALI]
Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or UML [Jhalanath KHANAL]
Communist Party of Nepal (United) [Chandra Dev JOSHI]
Dalit Janajati Party [Bishwendra PASHWAN]
Federal Socialist Party [Ashok RAI]
Jana Jagaran Party Nepal [Lok Mani DHAKAL]
Khambuwan Rastriya Morcha-Nepal [Ram Kumar RAI]
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHCHADAR]
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV]
Madhesi People's Rights Forum-Republican [Raj Kishore YADAV]
Madhes Samata Party Nepal [Meghraj SAHANI]
National Madhes Socialist Party [Sharat Singh BHANDARI]
Nepal Pariwar Dal [Ek Nath DHAKAL]
Nepal Workers and Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE]
Nepali Congress [Sushil KOIRALA]
Nepali Janata Dal [Hari Charan SAH]
Nepa Rastriya Party [Keshav Man SHAKYA]
Rastriya Janamorcha Nepal [Chitra Bahadur K.C.]
Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA]
Rastriya Prajatantra Party [Surya Bahadur THAPA]
Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal [Kamal THAPA]
Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO]
Samajbadi Janata Party Nepal [Prem Bahadur SINGH]
Sanghiya Sadbhavana Party [Anil JHA]
Sanghiye Lokatantrik Rastriya Manch [Rukmini CHAUDARY]
Terai Madhes Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR]
Terai Madhes Sadbhavana Party-Nepal [Mahendra YADAV]
Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal [Bhanuram CHAUDARY]
Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) or UCPN(M) [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA]

Political pressure groups and leaders

The Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist (CPN-M); note - this party split from the UCPN(M) in June 2012,opposed the November 2013 elections, and is not represented in the current Constituent Assembly
other: a variety of groups advocating regional autonomy such as the Federal State Limbuwan Council in far eastern Nepal

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: ambassador (vacant); Chargé d'Affaires Rishi Ram GHIMIRE (since 22 January 2014)
chancery: 2131 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-4550
FAX: [1] (202) 667-5534
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Peter W. BODDE (since 21 September 2012)
embassy: Maharajgunj, Kathmandu
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [977] (1) 423-4000
FAX: [977] (1) 400-7272

Flag description

red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the larger, lower triangle displays a white 12-pointed sun; the color red represents the rhododendron (Nepal's national flower) and is a sign of victory and bravery, the blue border signifies peace and harmony; the two right triangles are a combination of two single pennons (pennants) that originally symbolized the Himalaya Mountains while their charges represented the families of the king (upper) and the prime minister, but today they are understood to denote Hinduism and Buddhism, the country's two main religions; the moon represents the serenity of the Nepalese people and the shade and cool weather in the Himalayas, while the sun depicts the heat and higher temperatures of the lower parts of Nepal; the moon and the sun are also said to express the hope that the nation will endure as long as these heavenly bodies
note: Nepal is the only country in the world whose flag is not rectangular or square

National symbol(s)

rhododendron blossom

National anthem

name: "Sayaun Thunga Phool Ka" (Hundreds of Flowers)
lyrics/music: Pradeep Kumar RAI/Ambar GURUNG
note: adopted 2007; after the abolition of the monarchy in 2006, a new anthem was required because of the previous anthem's praise for the king


Economy - overview

Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with about one-quarter of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to as much as 22-25% of GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for more than 70% of the population and accounting for a little over one-third of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products, including pulses, jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Nepal has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower, with an estimated 42,000 MW of commercially feasible capacity, but political uncertainty and a difficult business climate have hampered foreign investment. Additional challenges to Nepal's growth include its landlocked geographic location, persistent power shortages, underdeveloped transportation infrastructure, civil strife and labor unrest, and its susceptibility to natural disaster. The lack of political consensus in the past several years has delayed national budgets and prevented much-needed economic reform, although the government passed a full budget in 2013.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$42.06 billion (2013 est.)
$40.57 billion (2012 est.)
$38.7 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$19.34 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

3.6% (2013 est.)
4.9% (2012 est.)
3.4% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$1,500 (2013 est.)
$1,500 (2012 est.)
$1,400 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 36.8%
industry: 14.5%
services: 48.7% (2013 est.)

Labor force

16 million
note: severe lack of skilled labor (2011 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 75%
industry: 7%
services: 18% (2010 est.)

Unemployment rate (%)

46% (2008 est.)
42% (2004 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)

25.2% (2011 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 29.5% (2011)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

32.8 (2010)
47.2 (2008 est.)


revenues: $3.3 billion
expenditures: $3.9 billion (FY12/13)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

17.1% of GDP (FY12/13)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-3.1% of GDP (FY12/13)

Public debt (% of GDP)

28% of GDP (FY11/12)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

NA% (2013 est.)
9.5% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)

6% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

9% (31 December 2013 est.)
8% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$3.553 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.104 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$11.49 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$11.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$13.46 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$11.88 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$4.16 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$3.849 billion (31 December 2011)
$5.235 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Agriculture - products

pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat


tourism, carpets, textiles; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production

Industrial production growth rate (%)

1.5% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

$648 million (2013 est.)
$283.9 million (2012 est.)


$1.06 billion (2013 est.)
$1.004 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, pashima, jute goods

Exports - partners (%)

India 93.9%, Bangladesh 4%, Italy 0.4% (2013 est.)


$6.329 billion (2013 est.)
$5.951 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine

Imports - partners (%)

India 79.4%, South Korea 3.1%, China 2.5% (2013 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$6.574 billion (15 January 2014 est.)
$5.833 billion (15 July 2013 est.)

External debt ($)

$3.956 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
$3.673 billion (31 December 2010 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$103 million

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad


Exchange rates

Currency converter
Nepalese rupees (NPR) per US dollar -
87.96 (2013 est.)
85.2 (2012 est.)
73.16 (2010 est.)
77.44 (2009)
65.21 (2008)

Fiscal year

16 July - 15 July


Electricity - production (kWh)

3.431 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

2.745 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

30 million kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

694 million kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

721,000 kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

7.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

92.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

18,430 bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

21,960 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

3.173 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

834,000 (2013)

Telephones - mobile cellular

18.138 million (2013)

Telephone system

general assessment: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service and mobile-cellular telephone network
domestic: mobile-cellular telephone subscribership base is increasing with roughly 90% of the population living in areas covered by mobile carriers
international: country code - 977; radiotelephone communications; microwave and fiber landlines to India; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

state operates 2 TV stations as well as national and regional radio stations; roughly 30 independent TV channels are registered with only about half in regular operation; nearly 400 FM radio stations are licensed with roughly 300 operational (2007)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

41,256 (2012)

Internet users

577,800 (2009)



47 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 11
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 29 (2013)

Railways (km)

total: 59 km
narrow gauge: 59 km 0.762-m gauge (2008)

Roadways (km)

total: 10,844 km
paved: 4,952 km
unpaved: 5,892 km (2010)


Military branches

Nepal Army (2012)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2014)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 6,941,152
females age 16-49: 7,618,397 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 5,260,878
females age 16-49: 5,947,512 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 380,172
female: 367,103 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures (% of GDP)

NA% (2012)
1.41% of GDP (2011)
NA% (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

joint border commission continues to work on contested sections of boundary with India, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents and illegal cross-border activities

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 15,0000-20,000 (Tibet/China) (2013); 29,813 (Bhutan) (2014)
IDPs: up to 50,000 (remaining from ten-year Maoist insurgency that officially ended in 2006; figure does not include people displaced since 2007 by inter-communal violence and insecurity in the Terai region) (2013)
stateless persons: 800,000 (2011); note - in 2007-2008 the government distributed 2.6 million citizenship certificates to the 3.4 million people without one; the remaining 800,000 without citizenship certificates are not necessarily stateless, and the UNHCR is working with the Nepali Government to clarify their situation; lesser numbers of Bhutanese Hindu refugees of Nepali origin (the Lhotsampa) who were stripped of Bhutanese nationality and forced to flee their country in the late 1980s and early 1990s - and undocumented Tibetan refugees who arrived in Nepal prior to the 1990s - are considered stateless

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis and hashish for the domestic and international drug markets; transit point for opiates from Southeast Asia to the West

Largest cities of Nepal

These are the 50 largest cities of Nepal ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Kathmandu 790,612
2 Pokhara 186,410
3 Lalitpur 183,316
4 Biratnagar 182,331
5 Birganj 133,244
6 Dharan 108,605
7 Bharatpur 107,162
8 Janakpur 93,796
9 Dhangadhi 92,326
10 Butwal 91,737
11 Mahendranagar 88,386
12 Hetauda 84,800
13 Bhaktapur 76,890
14 Siddharthanagar 63,372
15 Nepalganj 61,477
16 Gulariya 53,110
17 Itahari 47,987
18 Tikapur 44,762
19 Kirtipur 44,635
20 Kalaiya 39,367
21 Tulsipur 39,061
22 Rajbiraj 33,063
23 Lahan 31,497
24 Gaur 27,327
25 Siraha 24,659
26 Baglung 23,297
27 Tansen 23,190
28 Khandbari 22,904
29 Dhankuta 22,085
30 Waling 21,869
31 Malangwa 20,285
32 Bhadrapur 19,524
33 Ilam 17,492
34 Banepa 17,154
35 Jumla 9,073