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Mexico country facts

United Mexican States North America Mexico City (Distrito Federal) 120,286,655 inhabitants 1,964,375 sq km 61.23 inhabitants/sq km Mexican pesos (MXN) population evolution



The site of several advanced Amerindian civilizations - including the Olmec, Toltec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Maya, and Aztec - Mexico was conquered and colonized by Spain in the early 16th century. Administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries, it achieved its independence early in the 19th century. The global financial crisis beginning in late 2008 caused a massive economic downturn the following year, although growth returned quickly in 2010. Ongoing economic and social concerns include low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely indigenous population in the impoverished southern states. The elections held in 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate - Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) - defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). He was succeeded in 2006 by another PAN candidate Felipe CALDERON, but Enrique PENA NIETO regained the presidency for the PRI in 2012. Since 2007, Mexico's powerful drug-trafficking organizations have engaged in bloody feuding, resulting in tens of thousands of drug-related homicides.



North America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States

Geographic coordinates

23 00 N, 102 00 W

Area (sq km)

total: 1,964,375 sq km
land: 1,943,945 sq km
water: 20,430 sq km

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Area comparison map

Land boundaries (km)

total: 4,353 km
border countries: Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km, US 3,141 km

Coastline (km)

9,330 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


varies from tropical to desert


high, rugged mountains; low coastal plains; high plateaus; desert

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Laguna Salada -10 m
highest point: Volcan Pico de Orizaba 5,700 m

Natural resources

petroleum, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc, natural gas, timber

Land use (%)

arable land: 12.98%
permanent crops: 1.36%
other: 85.66% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

64,600 sq km (2009)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

457.2 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 80.4 cu km/yr (14%/9%/77%)
per capita: 700.4 cu m/yr (2009)

Natural hazards

tsunamis along the Pacific coast, volcanoes and destructive earthquakes in the center and south, and hurricanes on the Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean coasts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the central-southern part of the country; the volcanoes in Baja California are mostly dormant; Colima (elev. 3,850 m), which erupted in 2010, is Mexico's most active volcano and is responsible for causing periodic evacuations of nearby villagers; it has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Popocatepetl (elev. 5,426 m) poses a threat to Mexico City; other historically active volcanoes include Barcena, Ceboruco, El Chichon, Michoacan-Guanajuato, Pico de Orizaba, San Martin, Socorro, and Tacana

Environment - current issues

scarcity of hazardous waste disposal facilities; rural to urban migration; natural freshwater resources scarce and polluted in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast; raw sewage and industrial effluents polluting rivers in urban areas; deforestation; widespread erosion; desertification; deteriorating agricultural lands; serious air and water pollution in the national capital and urban centers along US-Mexico border; land subsidence in Valley of Mexico caused by groundwater depletion
note: the government considers the lack of clean water and deforestation national security issues

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

strategic location on southern border of US; corn (maize), one of the world's major grain crops, is thought to have originated in Mexico

People and Society


noun: Mexican(s)
adjective: Mexican

Ethnic groups (%)

mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60%, Amerindian or predominantly Amerindian 30%, white 9%, other 1%

Languages (%)

Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%
note: indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages (2005)

Religions (%)

Roman Catholic 82.7%, Pentecostal 1.6%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.4%, other Evangelical Churches 5%, other 1.9%, none 4.7%, unspecified 2.7% (2010 est.)


120,286,655 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 27.9% (male 17,188,577/female 16,423,421)
15-24 years: 18.1% (male 10,999,445/female 10,741,999)
25-54 years: 40.4% (male 23,385,321/female 25,200,511)
55-64 years: 7% (male 3,850,792/female 4,527,074)
65 years and over: 6.9% (male 3,594,675/female 4,374,840) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Mexico

Median age (years)

total: 27.3 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 28.4 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

1.21% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

19.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

5.24 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

-1.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 78.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.49% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

MEXICO CITY (capital) 20.446 million; Guadalajara 4.525 million; Monterrey 4.213 million; Puebla 2.335 million; Tijuana 1.82 million; Toluca de Lerdo 1.748 million (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

50 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 12.58 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 14 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 75.43 years
male: 72.67 years
female: 78.32 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

2.29 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

6.4% of GDP (2009)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

1.96 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

1.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source (% of population)

96.1improved: urban: 95.9% of population
rural: 90.8% of population
total: 94.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.9% of population
rural: 9.2% of population
total: 5.1% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 87% of population
rural: 79% of population
total: 85.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 13% of population
rural: 21% of population
total: 14.7% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

0.2% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

174,300 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths


Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne disease: dengue fever (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

32.1% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight (%)

2.8% (2012)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

5.1% of GDP (2009)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 93.5%
male: 94.8%
female: 92.3% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2011)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 (%)

total: 9.4%
male: 9.1%
female: 9.9% (2012)


Country name

conventional long form: United Mexican States
conventional short form: Mexico
local long form: Estados Unidos Mexicanos
local short form: Mexico

Government type

federal republic


name: Mexico City (Distrito Federal)
geographic coordinates: 19 26 N, 99 08 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins first Sunday in April; ends last Sunday in October
note: Mexico has three time zones

Administrative divisions

31 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila de Zaragoza, Colima, Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan de Ocampo, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro de Arteaga, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Veracruz), Yucatan, Zacatecas


16 September 1810 (declared); 27 September 1821 (recognized by Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 16 September (1810)


several previous; latest approved 5 February 1917; amended many times, last in 2014 (2014)

Legal system

civil law system with US constitutional law influence; judicial review of legislative acts

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch

chief of state: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Enrique PENA NIETO (since 1 December 2012)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - appointment of attorney general, the head of the Bank of Mexico, and senior treasury officials require consent of the Senate
elections: president elected by popular vote for a single six-year term; election last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2018)
election results: Enrique PENA NIETO elected president; percent of vote - Enrique PENA NIETO (PRI) 38.21%, Andres Manuel LOPEZ OBRADOR (PRD) 31.59%, Josefina Eugenia VAZQUEZ Mota (PAN) 25.41%, other 4.79%

Legislative branch

bicameral National Congress or Congreso de la Union consists of the Senate or Camara de Senadores (128 seats; 96 members elected by popular vote to serve six-year terms, and 32 seats allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (500 seats; 300 members are elected by popular vote; remaining 200 members are allocated on the basis of each party's popular vote; members to serve three-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held on 1 July 2012 for all of the seats (next to be held on 1 July 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held on 5 July 2015)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 52, PAN 38, PRD 22, PVEM 9, PT 4, Movimiento Ciudadano 2, PANAL 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PRI 208, PAN 114, PRD 100, PVEM 33, PT 19, Movimiento Ciudadano 16, PANAL 10

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nacion (consists of the chief justice and 11 justices and organized into civil, criminal, administrative, and labor panels) and the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judiciary (organized into the superior court, with 7 judges including the court president and 5 regional courts, each with 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court justices nominated by the president of the republic and approved by two-thirds vote of the members present in the Senate; justices serve for life; Electoral Tribunal superior and regional court judges nominated by the Supreme Court and elected by two-thirds vote of members present in the Senate; superior court president elected from among its members to hold office for a single-renewable 4-year term; other judges of the superior and regional courts serve staggered, single-renewable 9-year terms
subordinate courts: federal level includes circuit, collegiate, and unitary courts; state and district level courts

Political parties and leaders

Citizen's Movement (Movimiento Ciudadano) [Dante DELGADO Rannaoro]
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional) or PRI [Cesar CAMACHO Quiroz]
Labor Party (Partido del Trabajo) or PT [Alberto ANAYA Gutierrez]
Mexican Green Ecological Party (Partido Verde Ecologista de Mexico) or PVEM [vacant]
National Action Party (Partido Accion Nacional) or PAN [Gustavo MADERO Munoz]
New Alliance Party (Partido Nueva Alianza) or PNA/PANAL [Luis CASTRO Obregon]
Party of the Democratic Revolution (Partido de la Revolucion Democratica) or PRD [Jesus ZAMBRANO Grijalva]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Businessmen's Coordinating Council or CCE
Confederation of Employers of the Mexican Republic or COPARMEX
Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN
Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO
Coordinator for Foreign Trade Business Organizations or COECE
Federation of Unions Providing Goods and Services or FESEBES
National Chamber of Transformation Industries or CANACINTRA
National Confederation of Popular Organizations or CNOP
National Coordinator for Education Workers or CNTE
National Peasant Confederation or CNC
National Small Business Chamber or CANACOPE
National Syndicate of Education Workers or SNTE
National Union of Workers or UNT
Popular Assembly of the People of Oaxaca or APPO
Roman Catholic Church

International organization participation

APEC, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), Caricom (observer), CD, CDB, CE (observer), CELAC, CSN (observer), EBRD, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-3, G-15, G-24, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, MIGA, NAFTA, NAM (observer), NEA, OAS, OECD, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Eduardo MEDINA MORA Icaza (since 11 January 2013)
chancery: 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006
telephone: [1] (202) 728-1600
FAX: [1] (202) 728-1698
consulate(s) general: Anchorage (AK), Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso (TX), Houston, Laredo (TX), Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Nogales (AZ), Phoenix, Sacramento (CA), San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Saint Paul (MN)
consulate(s): Albuquerque, Boise (ID), Brownsville (TX), Calexico (CA), Del Rio (TX), Detroit, Douglas (AZ), Eagle Pass (TX), Fresno (CA), Indianapolis (IN), Kansas City (MO), Las Vegas (NV), Little Rock (AR), McAllen (TX), New Orleans, Omaha (NE), Orlando (FL), Oxnard (CA), Philadelphia, Portland (OR), Presidio (TX), Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino (CA), Santa Ana (CA), Seattle, Tucson (AZ), Yuma (AZ); note - Washington DC Consular Section located in a separate building from the Mexican Embassy and has jurisdiction over DC, parts of Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Earl Anthony WAYNE (since 2 August 2011)
embassy: Paseo de la Reforma 305, Colonia Cuauhtemoc, 06500 Mexico, Distrito Federal
mailing address: P. O. Box 9000, Brownsville, TX 78520-9000
telephone: [52] (55) 5080-2000
FAX: [52] (55) 5080-2834
consulate(s) general: Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Hermosillo, Matamoros, Merida, Monterrey, Nogales, Nuevo Laredo, Tijuana

Flag description

three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City
note: similar to the flag of Italy, which is shorter, uses lighter shades of red and green, and does not have anything in its white band

National symbol(s)

golden eagle

National anthem

name: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (National Anthem of Mexico)
lyrics/music: Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA/Jaime Nuno ROCA
note: adopted 1943, in use since 1854; the anthem is also known as "Mexicanos, al grito de Guerra" (Mexicans, to the War Cry); according to tradition, Francisco Gonzalez BOCANEGRA, an accomplished poet, was uninterested in submitting lyrics to a national anthem contest; his fiancee locked him in a room and refused to release him until the lyrics were completed


Economy - overview

Mexico's $1.3 trillion economy has become increasingly oriented toward manufacturing in the 20 years since the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) entered into force. Per capita income is roughly one-third that of the US; income distribution remains highly unequal. Mexico has become the United States' second-largest export market and third-largest source of imports. In 2013, two-way merchandise trade reached nearly $507 billion. Mexico has free trade agreements with over 50 countries including Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, the European Free Trade Area, and Japan - putting more than 90% of trade under free trade agreements. In 2012 Mexico formally joined the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and formed the Pacific Alliance with Peru, Colombia and Chile. Mexico's current government, led by President Enrique PENA NIETO, emphasized economic reforms during its first year in office, passing education, energy, financial, fiscal and telecommunications reform legislation. The three-party "Pact for Mexico" reform agenda aims to improve competitiveness and economic growth across the Mexican economy.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.845 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.823 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.76 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.327 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

1.2% (2013 est.)
3.6% (2012 est.)
4% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$15,600 (2013 est.)
$15,600 (2012 est.)
$15,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 3.6%
industry: 36.6%
services: 59.8% (2013 est.)

Labor force

51.48 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 13.4%
industry: 24.1%
services: 61.9% (2011)

Unemployment rate (%)

4.9% (2013 est.)
5.3% (2012 est.)
note: underemployment may be as high as 25%

Population below poverty line (%)

note: based on food-based definition of poverty; asset based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 37.5% (2010)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

48.3 (2008)
53.1 (1998)


revenues: $291.2 billion
expenditures: $324.1 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

21.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-2.5% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

37.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
35.8% of GDP (2012 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

4% (2013 est.)
3.6% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)

4.5% (31 December 2012 est.)
4.5% (31 December 2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

4.7% (31 December 2013 est.)
4.73% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$174.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$170.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money

$713 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$671.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$444.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$404.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$525.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$408.7 billion (31 December 2011)
$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

Agriculture - products

corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, beans, cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; beef, poultry, dairy products; wood products


food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, tourism

Industrial production growth rate (%)

3.5% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$14.18 billion (2013 est.)
-$11.84 billion (2012 est.)


$370.9 billion (2013 est.)
$349.6 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

manufactured goods, oil and oil products, silver, fruits, vegetables, coffee, cotton

Exports - partners (%)

US 78% (2012)


$370.7 billion (2013 est.)
$350.9 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

metalworking machines, steel mill products, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment, car parts for assembly, repair parts for motor vehicles, aircraft, and aircraft parts

Imports - partners (%)

US 49.9%, China 15.4%, Japan 4.8% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$167.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$149.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

External debt ($)

$354.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$286.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$435.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$400.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$141.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$133 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
Mexican pesos (MXN) per US dollar -
12.76 (2013 est.)
13.17 (2012 est.)
12.636 (2010 est.)
13.514 (2009)
11.016 (2008)

Fiscal year

calendar year


Electricity - production (kWh)

296 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

212.3 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

1.286 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

603 million kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

62 million kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

76.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

2.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

18.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

3.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

2.936 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

1.46 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

10.26 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

1.364 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

2.133 million bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

189,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

607,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

53.96 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

59.15 billion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

11 million cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

17.24 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

487.7 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

462.3 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

20.22 million (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

100.786 million (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: adequate telephone service for business and government; improving quality and increasing mobile cellular availability, with mobile subscribers far outnumbering fixed-line subscribers; domestic satellite system with 120 earth stations; extensive microwave radio relay network; considerable use of fiber-optic cable and coaxial cable
domestic: despite the opening to competition in January 1997, Telmex remains dominant; Fixed-line teledensity is less than 20 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is about 80 per 100 persons
international: country code - 52; Columbus-2 fiber-optic submarine cable with access to the US, Virgin Islands, Canary Islands, Spain, and Italy; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 submarine cable system together provide access to Central America, parts of South America and the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth stations - 120 (32 Intelsat, 2 Solidaridad (giving Mexico improved access to South America, Central America, and much of the US as well as enhancing domestic communications), 1 Panamsat, numerous Inmarsat mobile earth stations); linked to Central American Microwave System of trunk connections (2011)

Broadcast media

many TV stations and more than 1,400 radio stations with most privately owned; the Televisa group once had a virtual monopoly in TV broadcasting, but new broadcasting groups and foreign satellite and cable operators are now available (2012)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

16.233 million (2012)

Internet users

31.02 million (2009)



1,714 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 243
over 3,047 m: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 32
1,524 to 2,437 m: 80
914 to 1,523 m: 86
under 914 m: 33 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1,471
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 42
914 to 1,523 m: 281
under 914 m: 1,146 (2013)


1 (2013)

Pipelines (km)

gas 18,074 km; liquid petroleum 2,102 km; oil 8,775 km; oil/gas/water 369 km; refined products 7,565 km; water 123 km (2013)

Railways (km)

total: 17,166 km
standard gauge: 17,166 km 1.435-m gauge (22 km electrified) (2008)

Roadways (km)

total: 377,660 km
paved: 137,544 km (includes 7,176 km of expressways)
unpaved: 240,116 km (2012)

Waterways (km)

2,900 km (navigable rivers and coastal canals mostly connected with ports on the country's east coast) (2012)

Merchant marine

total: 52
by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 3, chemical tanker 11, liquefied gas 3, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 17, roll on/roll off 3
foreign-owned: 5 (France 1, Greece 2, South Africa 1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 12 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Marshall Islands 2, Panama 5, Portugal 1, Spain 1, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Altamira, Coatzacoalcos, Lazaro Cardenas, Manzanillo, Salina Cruz, Veracruz
oil terminals: Cayo Arcas terminal, Dos Bocas terminal


Military branches

Secretariat of National Defense (Secretaria de Defensa Nacional, Sedena): Army (Ejercito), Mexican Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Mexicana, FAM); Secretariat of the Navy (Secretaria de Marina, Semar): Mexican Navy (Armada de Mexico (ARM); includes Naval Air Force (FAN), Mexican Naval Infantry Corps (Cuerpo de Infanteria de Marina, Mexmar or CIM)) (2013)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18 years of age for compulsory military service, conscript service obligation is 12 months; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary enlistment; conscripts serve only in the Army; Navy and Air Force service is all voluntary; women are eligible for voluntary military service; cadets enrolled in military schools from the age of 15 are considered members of the armed forces (2012)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 28,815,506
females age 16-49: 30,363,558 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 23,239,866
females age 16-49: 25,642,549 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 1,105,371
female: 1,067,007 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures (% of GDP)

0.59% of GDP (2012)
0.56% of GDP (2011)
0.59% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

abundant rainfall in recent years along much of the Mexico-US border region has ameliorated periodically strained water-sharing arrangements; the US has intensified security measures to monitor and control legal and illegal personnel, transport, and commodities across its border with Mexico; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States; Belize and Mexico are working to solve minor border demarcation discrepancies arising from inaccuracies in the 1898 border treaty

Refugees and internally displaced persons

IDPs: 160,000 (government's quashing of Zapatista uprising in 1994 in eastern Chiapas Region; drug cartel violence and government's military response since 2007; violence between and within indigenous groups) (2013 est.)
stateless persons: 7 (2012)

Illicit drugs

major drug-producing and transit nation; world's second largest opium poppy cultivator; opium poppy cultivation in 2009 rose 31% over 2008 to 19,500 hectares yielding a potential production of 50 metric tons of pure heroin, or 125 metric tons of "black tar" heroin, the dominant form of Mexican heroin in the western United States; marijuana cultivation increased 45% to 17,500 hectares in 2009; government conducts the largest independent illicit-crop eradication program in the world; continues as the primary transshipment country for US-bound cocaine from South America, with an estimated 95% of annual cocaine movements toward the US stopping in Mexico; major drug syndicates control the majority of drug trafficking throughout the country; producer and distributor of ecstasy; significant money-laundering center; major supplier of heroin and largest foreign supplier of marijuana and methamphetamine to the US market (2007)

Largest cities of Mexico

These are the 50 largest cities of Mexico ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Mexico 8,720,916
2 Ecatepec 1,806,297
3 Guadalajara 1,640,649
4 Juarez 1,403,025
5 Puebla 1,392,137
6 Tijuana 1,376,494
7 Nezahualcóyotl 1,232,565
8 Monterrey 1,122,912
9 León 1,114,662
10 Zapopan 987,555
11 Naucalpan 846,222
12 Guadalupe 724,949
13 Mérida 717,196
14 Tlalnepantla 715,798
15 Chihuahua 708,292
16 San Luis Potosí 677,726
17 Aguascalientes 658,193
18 Acapulco 652,160
19 Saltillo 621,270
20 Querétaro 611,803
21 Mexicali 597,124
22 Hermosillo 595,833
23 Morelia 592,820
24 Chimalhuacán 590,165
25 Culiacán 582,489
26 Veracruz 568,336
27 Cancún 542,156
28 Torreón 524,084
29 López Mateos 521,056
30 San Nicolás de los Garza 507,837
31 Toluca 505,903
32 Reynosa 498,670
33 Tlaquepaque 493,667
34 Tuxtla Gutiérrez 481,143
35 Cuautitlán Izcalli 475,199
36 Durango 457,154
37 Matamoros 435,159
38 Xalapa 425,166
39 Tonalá 401,616
40 Xico 365,793
41 Villahermosa 362,416
42 Mazatlán 354,730
43 Apodaca 352,246
44 Ixtapaluca 351,015
45 Nuevo Laredo 349,562
46 Cuernavaca 343,785
47 Irapuato 339,568
48 Pachuca 319,593
49 Coacalco 313,419
50 Tampico 309,015