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Italy

Italian Republic Europe Rome 61,680,122 inhabitants 301,340 sq km 204.69 inhabitants/sq km euros (EUR) population evolution

Famous people from Italy

Here is a list of famous people from Italy. Curious if anybody from Italy made it our most famous people in the world list? Read the aformentioned article in order to find out.

Giuseppe Verdi

Opera Artist

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi was an Italian Romantic composer primarily known for his operas. Verdi and Richard Wagner are considered the two preeminent opera composers of the nineteenth century. Verdi dominated the Italian opera scene after the eras of Bellini, Donizetti and Rossini. His works are frequently performed in opera houses throughout the world and, transcending the boundaries of the genre, some of his themes have long since taken root in popular culture, as "La donna è mobile" from Rigoletto, "Libiamo ne' lieti calici" from La traviata, "Va, pensiero" from Nabucco, the "Coro di zingari" from Il trovatore and the "Grand March" from Aida. Moved by the death of compatriot Alessandro Manzoni, Verdi wrote Messa da Requiem in 1874 in Manzoni's honour, a work now regarded as a masterpiece of the oratorio tradition and a testimony to his capacity outside the field of opera. Visionary and politically engaged, he remains – alongside Garibaldi and Cavour – an emblematic figure of the reunification process of the Italian peninsula.

Leonardo da Vinci

Mathematician

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote". Marco Rosci states that while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time. Born out of wedlock to a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman, Caterina, in Vinci in the region of Florence, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter, Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice, and he spent his last years in France at the home awarded him by Francis I.

Julius Caesar

Politician

Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain. These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

Benito Mussolini

Military Commander

Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943. He ruled constitutionally until 1925, when he dropped all pretense of democracy and set up a legal dictatorship. Known as Il Duce. Mussolini was one of the key figures in the creation of fascism. Originally a member of the Italian Socialist Party, Mussolini was expelled from the PSI due to his opposition to the party's stance on neutrality in World War I. Mussolini denounced the PSI, and later founded the fascist movement. Following the March on Rome in October 1922 he became the youngest Prime Minister in Italian history. After destroying all political opposition through his secret police and outlawing labor strikes, Mussolini and his fascist followers consolidated their power through a series of laws that transformed the nation into a one-party dictatorship. Within five years he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, aspiring to create a totalitarian state. Mussolini remained in power until he was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel III in 1943. A few months later, he became the leader of the Italian Social Republic, a German client regime in northern Italy; he held this post until his death in 1945.

Silvio Berlusconi

Politician

Silvio Berlusconi is an Italian entrepreneur, media tycoon and politician who served four times as Prime Minister of Italy, from 1994 to 1995, 2001 to 2006 and 2008 to 2011. Berlusconi is the controlling shareholder of Mediaset and owner of the Italian football club A.C. Milan since 1986. He is nicknamed Il Cavaliere for his Order of Merit for Labour. In 2013, Forbes magazine ranked him as the 194th richest man in the world with a net worth of US$6.2 billion. In 2009 Forbes ranked him 12th in the List of The World's Most Powerful People due to his domination on the Italian politics. Berlusconi held the Prime Minister office during nine years in total, and hereby is the longest-serving post-war Prime Minister of Italy, and third longest-serving since the Unification of Italy, after Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Giolitti. He was the leader of the centre-right party Forza Italia in 1994-2009 and the successive party People of Freedom since 2009. In September 2013 he launched a revived Forza Italia party. On 1 August 2013, he was convicted of tax-fraud by the final appeal instance, Court of Cassation, and sentenced to four years imprisonment along with a public office ban for two years. As his age exceeds 70 years, he will be exempted from direct imprisonment, and instead serve his sentence by doing unpaid social community work. Because of being sentenced to a gross imprisonment for more than two years, a new Italian anticorruption law also called for the Italian Senate to schedule a vote for expulsion of Berlusconi from the Senate - through enforcement of a six‑year long public office ban. A Senate committee has recommended the Senate to enforce the public office ban by a vote in the plenary assembly, which is scheduled to take place on 27 November. Berlusconi has pledged to stay leader of his revived Forza Italia party, throughout the period where he serves his imprisonment sentence and public office ban.

Galileo Galilei

Physicist

Galileo Galilei, often known mononymously as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of science", and "the Father of Modern Science". His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments. Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, and they concluded that it could be supported as only a possibility, not an established fact. Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences, in which he summarised the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.

Virgil

Poet

Publius Vergilius Maro, usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period. He is known for three major works of Latin literature, the Eclogues, the Georgics, and the epic Aeneid. A number of minor poems, collected in the Appendix Vergiliana, are sometimes attributed to him. Virgil is traditionally ranked as one of Rome's greatest poets. His Aeneid has been considered the national epic of ancient Rome from the time of its composition to the present day. Modeled after Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, the Aeneid follows the Trojan refugee Aeneas as he struggles to fulfill his destiny and arrive on the shores of Italy—in Roman mythology the founding act of Rome. Virgil's work has had wide and deep influence on Western literature, most notably the Divine Comedy of Dante, in which Virgil appears as Dante's guide through hell and purgatory.

Dante Alighieri

Statesman

Durante degli Alighieri, simply referred to as Dante, was a major Italian poet of the Middle Ages. His Divine Comedy, originally called La Comedia and later called Divina by Boccaccio, is widely considered the greatest literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature. In Italy he is known as il Sommo Poeta or just il Poeta. He, Petrarch and Boccaccio are also known as "the three fountains" or "the three crowns". Dante is also called the "Father of the Italian language".

Valentino Rossi

Motorcycle Racer

Valentino Rossi is an Italian professional motorcycle racer and multiple MotoGP World Champion. He is one of the most successful motorcycle racers of all time, with nine Grand Prix World Championships to his name – seven of which are in the premier class. Following his father, Graziano Rossi, Valentino started racing in Grand Prix in 1996 for Aprilia in the 125cc category and won his first World Championship the following year. From there, he moved up to the 250cc category with Aprilia and won the 250cc World Championship in 1999. After graduating to the premier class in 2000, he won the 500cc World Championship with Honda in 2001, the MotoGP World Championships in 2002 and 2003, and continued his streak of back-to-back championships by winning the 2004 and 2005 titles after leaving Honda to join Yamaha, before regaining the title in 2008 and retaining it in 2009. He left Yamaha to join Ducati for the 2011 season, but it was confirmed in 2012 that he would rejoin Yamaha for the 2013 and 2014 seasons. Rossi is first in all time 500 cc/MotoGP race wins standings, with 80 victories, and second in all time overall wins standings with 106 race wins.

Augustus

Military Commander

Augustus was the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. Born Gaius Octavius into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian Octavii family, in 44 BC he was adopted posthumously by his maternal great-uncle Gaius Julius Caesar following Caesar's assassination. Together with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at Phillipi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its members: Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Augustus in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward facade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, and the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, and those of tribune and censor. It took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, and instead called himself Princeps Civitatis. The resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire.

Michelangelo

Painting Artist

Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci. Michelangelo was considered the greatest living artist in his lifetime, and ever since then he has been held to be one of the greatest artists of all time. A number of his works in painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence. His output in every field during his long life was prodigious; when the sheer volume of correspondence, sketches, and reminiscences that survive is also taken into account, he is the best-documented artist of the 16th century. Two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, were sculpted before he turned thirty. Despite his low opinion of painting, Michelangelo also created two of the most influential works in fresco in the history of Western art: the scenes from Genesis on the ceiling and The Last Judgment on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. As an architect, Michelangelo pioneered the Mannerist style at the Laurentian Library. At the age of 74 he succeeded Antonio da Sangallo the Younger as the architect of St. Peter's Basilica. Michelangelo transformed the plan, the western end being finished to Michelangelo's design, the dome being completed after his death with some modification.

Thomas Aquinas

Philosopher

Thomas Aquinas, OP, also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino, was an Italian Dominican friar and priest and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the "Doctor Angelicus", "Doctor Communis", and "Doctor Universalis". "Aquinas" is the demonym of Aquino, his home town. He was the foremost classical proponent of natural theology, and the father of Thomism. His influence on Western thought is considerable, and much of modern philosophy was conceived in development or refutation of his ideas, particularly in the areas of ethics, natural law, metaphysics, and political theory. The works for which he is best known are the Summa Theologica and the Summa contra Gentiles. Thomas is honored as a saint by the Catholic Church and is held to be the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood, and indeed the highest expression of both natural reason and speculative theology. In modern times, under papal directives, the study of his works was long used as a core of the required program of study for those seeking ordination as priests or deacons, as well as for those in religious formation and for other students of the sacred disciplines.

Gioacchino Rossini

Opera Artist

Gioachino Antonio Rossini was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces. His best-known operas include the Italian comedies Il barbiere di Siviglia and La Cenerentola and the French-language epics Moïse et Pharaon and Guillaume Tell. A tendency for inspired, song-like melodies is evident throughout his scores, which led to the nickname "The Italian Mozart". Until his retirement in 1829, Rossini had been the most popular opera composer in history.

Nero

Roman Emperor

Nero was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death. During his reign, Nero focused much of his attention on diplomacy, trade, and enhancing the cultural life of the Empire. He ordered theaters built and promoted athletic games. During his reign, the redoubtable general Corbulo conducted a successful war and negotiated peace with the Parthian Empire. His general Suetonius Paulinus crushed a revolt in Britain. Nero annexed the Bosporan Kingdom to the Empire and began the First Roman–Jewish War. In 64 AD, most of Rome was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome, which many Romans believed Nero himself had started in order to clear land for his planned palatial complex, the Domus Aurea. In 68, the rebellion of Vindex in Gaul and later the acclamation of Galba in Hispania drove Nero from the throne. Facing assassination, he committed suicide on 9 June 68 His death ended the Julio-Claudian Dynasty, sparking a brief period of civil wars known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Nero's rule is often associated with tyranny and extravagance. He is known for many executions, including that of his mother, and the probable murder by poison of his stepbrother Britannicus.

Niccolò Machiavelli

Philosopher

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was for many years an official in the Florentine Republic, with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He was a founder of modern political science, and more specifically political ethics. He also wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is renowned in the Italian language. He was Secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power. He wrote his masterpiece, The Prince, after the Medici had recovered power and he no longer held a position of responsibility in Florence. "Machiavellianism", is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described in The Prince. The book itself gained enormous notoriety and wide readership because the author seemed to be endorsing this evil behavior.

Amy Adams

Actor

Amy Lou Adams is an American actress and singer. Adams was born to American parents in Vicenza, Italy, and began her performing career on stage in dinner theaters, before making her screen debut in the 1999 black comedy film Drop Dead Gorgeous. After a series of television guest appearances and roles in B movies, she was cast in the role of Brenda Strong in 2002's Catch Me If You Can, but her breakthrough role was in the 2005 independent film Junebug, playing Ashley Johnsten, for which she received critical acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress. Adams subsequently starred in Disney's 2007 film Enchanted, a critical and commercial success, and received a Golden Globe Award nomination for her performance as Princess Giselle. She received her second Academy Award and Golden Globe Award nominations the following year for her role as a young nun, Sister James, in Doubt. Though she has appeared in a range of dramatic and comedic roles, Adams originally gained a reputation for playing characters with cheerful and sunny dispositions but has since played a wider variety of roles. Adams starred in Sunshine Cleaning with Emily Blunt and Alan Arkin, and the following year appeared as Amelia Earhart in Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian. She appeared in Julie & Julia in 2009 portraying writer Julie Powell followed by Leap Year in 2010. Her role as Charlene Fleming in The Fighter earned Adams her third Academy Award nomination, her third Golden Globe Award, second BAFTA Award, and fifth Screen Actors Guild Award nominations. In 2011, Adams appeared in The Muppets alongside Jason Segel. In 2012, Adams portrayed Peggy Dodd in The Master and the daughter of Clint Eastwood's character in the baseball drama Trouble with the Curve. For The Master, Adams was nominated for her fourth Academy Award, her fourth Golden Globe Award, and her third BAFTA Award. She played Lois Lane in the 2013 Superman movie Man of Steel.

Mario Barwuah Balotelli

Soccer

Mario Barwuah Balotelli is an Italian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Serie A club Milan and the Italian national team. He started his professional football career at Lumezzane and played for the first team twice before having an unsuccessful trial at FC Barcelona, and subsequently joining Internazionale in 2007. Inter manager Roberto Mancini brought Balotelli into the first team, but when Mancini left, Balotelli's disciplinary record fell away. He had a strained relationship with new manager José Mourinho and was suspended from Inter's first team in January 2009 after a number of disciplinary problems. In March 2010, he came under criticism by Inter fans after he appeared on the Italian TV show Striscia la notizia, wearing an A.C. Milan jersey. This damaged the prospect of him having a long career at Inter, but he did make several appearances after that. With doubts over his career at Inter, former coach Roberto Mancini had since moved to Manchester City and decided to give Balotelli a fresh chance at a new club. He joined Manchester City in August 2010, where his performances and off-field activities continued to be enigmatic and unpredictable. Nicknamed Super Mario, he earned his first cap for the Italian national team on 10 August 2010 in a friendly match against the Côte d'Ivoire.

Francis of Assisi

Philosopher

St. Francis of Assisi was an Italian Catholic friar and preacher. He founded the men's Order of Friars Minor, the women’s Order of St. Clare, and the Third Order of Saint Francis for men and women not able to live the lives of itinerant preachers followed by the early members of the Order of Friars Minor or the monastic lives of the Poor Clares. Though he was never ordained to the Catholic priesthood, Francis is one of the most venerated religious figures in history. Francis' father was Pietro di Bernardone, a prosperous silk merchant. Francis lived the high-spirited life typical of a wealthy young man, even fighting as a soldier for Assisi. While going off to war in 1204, Francis had a vision that directed him back to Assisi, where he lost his taste for his worldly life. On a pilgrimage to Rome, he joined the poor in begging at St. Peter's Basilica. The experience moved him to live in poverty. Francis returned home, began preaching on the streets, and soon amassed a following. His Order was authorized by Pope Innocent III in 1210. He then founded the Order of Poor Clares, which became an enclosed religious order for women, as well as the Order of Brothers and Sisters of Penance.

Laura Pausini

Latin pop Artist

Laura Pausini, omri is an Italian pop singer-songwriter and record producer. She debuted in 1993, winning the newcomer artists' section of the 43rd Sanremo Music Festival with the song "La solitudine", which became an Italian standard and an international hit, reaching the top spot on the Italian Musica e Dischi singles chart, as well as on the Dutch Top 40 and on the Flemish Ultratop 50. Her eponymous debut album was released in Italy on 23 April 1993 and later became an international success, selling two million copies worldwide. Its follow-up, Laura, was released in 1994 and confirmed her international success, selling three million copies worldwide. During the same year, she released her first Spanish-language album, Laura Pausini, composed of ten adapted songs originally included in her previous works. The album was certified diamond by the Association of Phonographic and Videographic of Spain, making her the first non-Spanish artist to sell more than one million copies in Spain. As of today, she has released ten studio albums, an international greatest hits album and two compilation albums for the Hispanic and Anglophone market only, respectively. She mostly performs in Italian and Spanish, but she has also recorded songs in English, French and Portuguese. Her only English-language album, From the Inside, was released in 2002, but failed to satisfy commercial expectations both in North America and in the rest of the world. In 2006, her record Io canto was the best-selling album of the year in Italy. All of her albums earned the top-five on the Italian Albums Chart, and six of them reached the first position in Italy. Pausini has also released 14 top-ten singles in Italy, including five number-ones. In 2004, Allmusic's Jason Birchmeier considered Pausini's sales "an impressive feat for someone who'd never really broken into the lucrative English–language market". As of 2011, according to Warner Music Italy, Pausini had sold more than 45 million records, while according national italian radio and television Rai she has sold about 70 million albums, compilations, singles and dvds worldwide.

Raphael

Painting Artist

Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form and ease of composition and for its visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and despite his death at 37, a large body of his work remains. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career. The best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models. His career falls naturally into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria, then a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates.

Caligula

Roman Emperor

Caligula, also known as Gaius, was Roman Emperor from 37 AD to 41 AD. Caligula was a member of the house of rulers conventionally known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Caligula's father Germanicus, the nephew and adopted son of Emperor Tiberius, was a very successful general and one of Rome's most beloved public figures. The young Gaius earned the nickname Caligula from his father's soldiers while accompanying him during his campaigns in Germania. When Germanicus died at Antioch in 19 AD, his wife Agrippina the Elder returned to Rome with her six children where she became entangled in an increasingly bitter feud with Tiberius. This conflict eventually led to the destruction of her family, with Caligula as the sole male survivor. Unscathed by the deadly intrigues, Caligula accepted the invitation to join the emperor on the island of Capri in 31 AD, where Tiberius himself had withdrawn five years earlier. At the death of Tiberius in 37 AD, Caligula succeeded his great uncle and adoptive grandfather. There are few surviving sources on Caligula's reign, although he is described as a noble and moderate ruler during the first six months of his rule. After this, the sources focus upon his cruelty, extravagance and sexual perversity, presenting him as an insane tyrant. While the reliability of these sources has increasingly been called into question, it is known that during his brief reign, Caligula worked to increase the unconstrained personal power of the emperor. He directed much of his attention to ambitious construction projects and notoriously luxurious dwellings for himself. However, he initiated the construction of two new aqueducts in Rome: the Aqua Claudia and the Anio Novus. During his reign, the Empire annexed the Kingdom of Mauretania and made it into a province.

Alessandro Del Piero

Soccer

Alessandro Del Piero Ufficiale OMRI is an Italian footballer who plays for and captains Sydney FC in the A-League. He is third in the ranking of Italian all-time top scorers. He played in Juventus F.C. for 19 years and holds the club records for goals and appearances. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest Italian players of all time. Del Piero scored in all competitions in which he participated. He was named in the FIFA 100, a list of the 125 greatest living footballers selected by Pelé as a part of FIFA's centenary celebrations. He was also voted in the list of best European players for the past 50 years in the UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll. In 2000, Del Piero was the world's best-paid football player from salary, bonuses, and advertising revenue. As of December 2012, he is in tenth place among the UEFA Champions League all-time goalscorers. Along with six awards in Italy for gentlemanly conduct, he has also won the Golden Foot award, which pertains to personality and playing ability. He played three FIFA World Cup and four UEFA European Football Championship with the Italian national team. He is joint 4th in the Italian national team top-scorer ranking, with 27 goals in 91 appearances.

Carlo Ancelotti

Soccer

Carlo Ancelotti is an Italian football manager and former player who currently manages Spanish La Liga side Real Madrid. Nicknamed Carletto, Ancelotti played as a midfielder and had a successful career with Roma – captaining the team – with whom he won one Scudetto and four Coppa Italia honours and was part of the legendary late 1980s Milan team with whom he won two Scudetti and two European Cups in a five-year period. He was capped 26 times and scored one goal for the Italian national team and appeared in the 1990 World Cup. After spells as manager of Reggiana, Parma and Juventus, Ancelotti was appointed Milan manager in 2001. He won the Scudetto in 2004, the Champions League in 2003 and 2007 and the Coppa Italia in 2003. They were also Serie A and Champions League runner-ups in 2005. He is one of six men to have won the European Cup/Champions League as player and manager. In May 2009, he was appointed Chelsea manager and in his first season led them to a historic Premier League and FA Cup Double. He became only the second non-British manager to win the double, the other being Arsène Wenger. After an uneven 2010–11 Premier League season in which Chelsea failed to retain the title, Ancelotti was dismissed as their manager in May 2011.

Andrea Pirlo

Soccer Midfielder

Andrea Pirlo, Ufficiale OMRI, is an Italian footballer who plays for Serie A club Juventus and the Italian national team. He is usually deployed as a deep-lying playmaker or regista for both Juventus and Italy and is regarded as a leading exponent of this position. Although not gifted with pace, physicality or notable defensive or tackling abilities, Pirlo has been praised for his touch, technique, control, dribbling, incredible vision, inventive play and his accurate passing ability. He is also a set-piece and penalty-kick specialist, who is known for his long distance shooting and passing. Fellow players on the Italian team gave him the nickname l'architetto, because his long passes frequently set up goal-scoring opportunities for the Italy national football team. In recent years, Juventus fans also dub him il professore and Mozart, as a fun reference to the Austrian composer's prodigious ability. Pirlo has played for the Italian youth teams U15, U18 and U21, captaining and leading the latter to victory in the 2000 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship as the Golden Player and Top Scorer of the tournament. He joined the Italian senior side during the qualification round for World Cup 2002 and captained the national team to a bronze medal in the 2004 Olympics. Later, he was instrumental in their victory in the 2006 World Cup, finishing as the top assist provider. He was named man of the match three times, including the final, more than any other player in the tournament, and ultimately won the Bronze Ball also being elected to be part of the Team of the Tournament. He was also elected as part of the Euro 2012 Team of the Tournament, after leading Italy to the final, winning three man-of-the-match awards in the process, the most of any player along with Andrés Iniesta.

Pope Pius XII

Religious Leader

Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, was the head of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death in 1958. He is the most recent pope to take the name "Pius" upon his election. His pontificate coincided with the Second World War and commencement of the Cold War. Before election to the papacy, Pacelli served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany, and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany, with which the Vatican sought to protect the Church in Germany, and Hitler sought the destruction of 'political Catholicism'. A pre-war critic of Nazism, Pius lobbied world leaders to avoid war and, as Pope at the outbreak of war, issued Summi Pontificatus, expressing dismay at the invasion of Poland, reiterating church teaching against racism and calling for love, compassion and charity to prevail over war. While the Vatican was officially neutral during the war, Pius maintained links to the German Resistance, used diplomacy to aid the victims of the war and lobby for peace and spoke out against race based murders and other atrocities. The concordat of 1933, and Pius' leadership of the Catholic Church during World War II—including allegations of "silence" in public about the fate of the Jews—remain the subject of controversy.

Archimedes

Physicist

Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Among his advances in physics are the foundations of hydrostatics, statics and an explanation of the principle of the lever. He is credited with designing innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump that bears his name. Modern experiments have tested claims that Archimedes designed machines capable of lifting attacking ships out of the water and setting ships on fire using an array of mirrors. Archimedes is generally considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time. He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of pi. He also defined the spiral bearing his name, formulae for the volumes of solids of revolution, and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers. Archimedes died during the Siege of Syracuse when he was killed by a Roman soldier despite orders that he should not be harmed. Cicero describes visiting the tomb of Archimedes, which was surmounted by a sphere inscribed within a cylinder. Archimedes had proven that the sphere has two thirds of the volume and surface area of the cylinder, and regarded this as the greatest of his mathematical achievements.

Sara Errani

Tennis Player

Sara Errani is a professional tennis player from Italy. She is the Italian No. 1. As of 28 October 2013, she is ranked World No. 7 in singles and World No. 1 in doubles. She has won seven career singles titles. Errani's breakthrough season occurred in 2012. At the Australian Open, she reached the quarterfinals in singles and was a finalist in doubles. Known as a clay-court specialist, Errani won three titles on clay going into the 2012 French Open, where she reached the finals in both the singles and doubles tournaments, winning the doubles title with her partner Roberta Vinci. They also won the doubles title at the 2012 US Open. Her achievement in reaching the 2012 US Open singles semifinals leaves Wimbledon as the only Grand Slam tournament in which Errani has yet to make the quarterfinals.

Niccolò Paganini

Classical Artist

Niccolò Paganini was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique. His Caprice No. 24 in A minor, Op. 1, is among the best known of his compositions, and has served as an inspiration for many prominent composers.

Claudio Monteverdi

Opera Artist

Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi was an Italian composer, gambist, singer and Roman Catholic priest. Monteverdi's work, often regarded as revolutionary, marked the transition from the Renaissance style of music to that of the Baroque period. He developed two individual styles of composition – the heritage of Renaissance polyphony and the new basso continuo technique of the Baroque. Monteverdi wrote one of the earliest operas, L'Orfeo, an innovative work that is still regularly performed. He was recognized as an innovative composer and enjoyed considerable fame in his lifetime.

Marcus Aurelius

Roman Emperor

Marcus Aurelius was a Roman Emperor from 161 to 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Verus' death in 169. He was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. During his reign, the Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East; Aurelius' general Avidius Cassius sacked the capital Ctesiphon in 164. In central Europe, Aurelius fought the Marcomanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians with success during the Marcomannic Wars, with the threat of the Germanic tribes beginning to represent a troubling reality for the Empire. A revolt in the East led by Avidius Cassius failed to gain momentum and was suppressed immediately. Marcus Aurelius' Stoic tome Meditations, written in Greek while on campaign between 170 and 180, is still revered as a literary monument to a philosophy of service and duty, describing how to find and preserve equanimity in the midst of conflict by following nature as a source of guidance and inspiration.

Federico Fellini

Film Director

Federico Fellini was an Italian film director and scriptwriter. Known for a distinct style that blends fantasy and baroque images, he is considered one of the most influential filmmakers of the 20th century, and is widely revered. He won five Academy Awards including the most number of Oscars in history for Best Foreign Language Film.

Thiago Alcântara

Soccer Midfielder

Thiago Alcântara do Nascimento, known simply as Thiago, is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Bundesliga club FC Bayern Munich. Born in Italy, Thiago joined FC Barcelona aged 14. After representing the Spain at under-19 and under-21 levels, he made his full international debut for Spain in 2011.

Caravaggio

Painting Artist

Michelangelo Merisi or Amerighi da Caravaggio was an Italian artist active in Rome, Naples, Malta, and Sicily between 1592 and 1610. His paintings, which combine a realistic observation of the human state, both physical and emotional, with a dramatic use of lighting, had a formative influence on the Baroque school of painting. Caravaggio trained as a painter in Milan under Simone Peterzano who had himself trained under Titian. In his twenties Caravaggio moved to Rome where, during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, many huge new churches and palazzi were being built and paintings were needed to fill them. During the Counter-Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church searched for religious art with which to counter the threat of Protestantism, and for this task the artificial conventions of Mannerism, which had ruled art for almost a century, no longer seemed adequate. Caravaggio's novelty was a radical naturalism that combined close physical observation with a dramatic, even theatrical, use of chiaroscuro. This came to be known as Tenebrism, the shift from light to dark with little intermediate value. He burst upon the Rome art scene in 1600 with the success of his first public commissions, the Martyrdom of Saint Matthew and Calling of Saint Matthew. Thereafter he never lacked commissions or patrons, yet he handled his success poorly. He was jailed on several occasions, vandalized his own apartment, and ultimately had a death warrant issued for him by the Pope.

Francesco Totti

Soccer

Francesco Totti, Ufficiale OMRI, is an Italian footballer who is the captain of Serie A club Roma. His primary position is that of a trequartista, though he has also been successfully utilized as a lone striker. Totti has spent his entire career at Roma, is the number-one goalscorer and the most capped player in the club's history. He is considered as one of the finest players of his generation, and also as Roma's greatest player ever. A 2006 World Cup winner and Euro 2000 finalist, Totti was selected in the All-Star team for both tournaments. He has won many individual awards, including a record five Italian Footballer of the Year awards and two Serie A Footballer of the Year awards. He was named in the FIFA 100, a list of the 125 greatest living footballers selected by Pelé as a part of FIFA's centenary celebrations. In 2011, Totti has been recognized by IFFHS as the most popular footballer in Europe. Often referred to as Il Bimbo d'Oro, Il Re di Roma, Er Pupone, and Il Gladiatore by the Italian sports media, Totti is currently the top active Serie A goalscorer and second all-time in league history with 230 goals.

Gianluigi Buffon

Soccer

Gianluigi "Gigi" Buffon, Ufficiale OMRI, is an Italian goalkeeper who plays for and captains both Serie A club Juventus and the Italian national team. Buffon is the record appearance holder for the Italian national football team, and he is widely considered to be one of the greatest goalkeepers of all time. He is known for his "outstanding shot-stopping" and for being "a vocal organizer of the defence and a key dressing room personality." Buffon was declared by Pelé to be one of the 125 greatest living footballers in the world. He has been named the Serie A Goalkeeper of the Year a record nine times and was the winner of the 2006 Yashin Award following Italy's World Cup victory, in which Buffon was also elected to be part of the Team of the Tournament; an honour which he also received after reaching the final of the 2012 European Championships. Buffon is the only goalkeeper to have won the UEFA Club Footballer of the Year Award, which he won in 2003; he also won the award for best Goalkeeper that year and was voted into the UEFA Team of the Year in 2003, 2004 and 2006. In 2006, Buffon was runner-up for the Ballon d'Or and was elected to be part of the FIFPro World XI in 2006 and 2007.

Mark Antony

Military Commander

Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar. After Caesar's assassination, Antony formed an official political alliance with Octavian and Lepidus, known to historians today as the Second Triumvirate. The triumvirate broke up in 33 BC. Disagreement between Octavian and Antony erupted into civil war, the Final War of the Roman Republic, in 31 BC. Antony was defeated by Octavian at the naval Battle of Actium, and in a brief land battle at Alexandria. He and his lover Cleopatra committed suicide shortly thereafter. His career and defeat are significant in Rome's transformation from Republic to Empire.

Samuele Bersani

Pop Artist

Samuele Bersani is an Italian singer-songwriter. Amongst his best known songs one finds Giudizi Universali and Replay, the latter being the song that won the "Mia Martini" Critics Award at the Sanremo Music Festival. His latest albums, released in 2003 and 2006, are entitled Caramella smog, and L'Aldiqua . In 2000 songs from his album L'oroscopo speciale were used for the soundtrack of the fim Chiedimi se sono felice, by Aldo, Giovanni e Giacomo. In 2007, Bersani won the Amnesty International Italy "Voci per la liberta" Award for "Occhiali Rotti", a song written in memory of journalist Enzo Baldoni.

Mario Corso

Soccer

Mario Corso, nicknamed Mariolino, is an Italian former football player and coach. He was a famed left winger notable for his consistency. Corso was an important player of Internazionale, winning two European Champions and two Intercontinental Cups in the 1960s. He played for the Inter Milan team known as La Grande Inter. A midfielder-striker, he played a total of 436 matches with 78 goals in Serie A. He played 23 times for Italy national football team. His nicknames included "Mandrake" and "God's Left Foot" for his beautiful free kicks and crosses. He later coached Internazionale and other teams.

Sergio Cofferati

Politician

Sergio Cofferati is an Italian politician who, after serving as mayor of Bologna for the Democrats of the Left from 2004 to 2009, and thus has been elected as Member of the European Parliament in 2009 for the Italian Democratic Party.

Edmondo Amati

Film Producer

Edmondo Amati was an Italian film producer. He produced 55 films between 1964 and 1984. He was born in Italy.

Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Engineer

Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli is an academic researcher, teacher, entrepreneur, technical advisor and business man. He is a co-founder of the two largest companies in the Electronic design automation space: Cadence Design Systems and Synopsys, Inc. Born in Milan, Italy, he attended liceo classico, studying ancient Greek and Latin. He received his engineering degree summa cum laude from the Politecnico di Milano in 1971. The youngest person to become an associate professor there, in 1976 he quit for a position at the University of California at Berkeley, where he currently is a full Professor in the Electrical Engineering department. He received the 1995 IEEE Graduate Teaching Award, the 2001 Phil Kaufman Award and the 2009 IEEE/RSE Wolfson James Clerk Maxwell Award. In 1983, Sangiovanni-Vincentelli became IEEE Fellow and in 1998 he was elected to member of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering.

Franc Trkman

Inventor

Franc Trkman was an inventor and entrepreneur. He was born in 1903 on Nanos - then in Austria-Hungary, now in Slovenia - and died in 1978 in Ljubljana. After attending primary school he continued his schooling in Ljubljana and became a carpentry foreman and, later, a mechanic. By the start of the Second World War he had founded his own workshop in Ljubljana, where he employed a few people until he became seriously ill in 1968. In the former Yugoslavia and throughout Europe he was famous for a large number of patented inventions. Most of these he went on to manufacture and market himself, but where the market demanded greater quantities he sold or licensed the inventions Altogether he patented 15 inventions in Yugoslavia and of these some also in Italy, Argentina and Germany. All these inventions were realised in practice and in their time were great hits. His watertight windows and framed balcony doors were installed throughout Yugoslavia in representative buildings and schools, and also in the Karadjordjevo palace of Marshal Tito in Serbia.

Mariella di Sarzana

Woman

Mariella di Sarzana is the ex-wife of the late Stephen Boyd.

Victor Romito

Actor

Victor Romito was an actor and stunt performer.

Valerio Bevilacqua

Actor

Valerio Bevilacqua is an actor.

Tiberius

Roman Emperor

Tiberius was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Born Tiberius Claudius Nero, a Claudian, Tiberius was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian. Tiberius would later marry Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder and even later be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the next forty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, grand-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, and great-grand uncle of Nero. Tiberius was one of Rome's greatest generals, conquering Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and temporarily Germania; laying the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive, and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, "the gloomiest of men."

Roberto Baggio

Soccer Midfielder

Roberto Baggio is a retired Italian football forward and attacking midfielder/playmaker who was the former President of the Technical Sector of the FIGC. Widely regarded as one of the greatest footballers of all time, Baggio won both the Ballon d'Or and the FIFA World Player of the Year in 1993. He is the only Italian player ever to score in three World Cups and holds the record for most goals scored in World Cup tournaments for Italy, along with Paolo Rossi and Christian Vieri. He is also one of the top 5 all-time goalscorers for the Italian National Team, in Serie A and is one of the 3 top-scoring Italians in all competitions. In 2002 he became the first Italian player in over 50 years to score more than 300 career goals. Baggio is known as Il Divin' Codino, for the hairstyle he wore for most of his career, for his talent and for his Buddhist background. At the international level, Baggio has earned a runners-up and a third place medal at the 1994 and 1990 World Cups respectively, being awarded the Silver Ball and the Silver Boot in 1994. He has won two Serie A titles, a Coppa Italia and a UEFA Cup at Club Level, playing for 7 different teams throughout his career.

Gaetano Donizetti

Opera Artist

Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti was an Italian composer from Bergamo, Lombardy. His best-known works are the operas L'elisir d'amore, Lucia di Lammermoor, and Don Pasquale and the French operas La favorite and La fille du régiment. Along with Vincenzo Bellini and Gioachino Rossini, he was a leading composer of bel canto opera.

Petrarch

Poet

Francesco Petrarca was an Aretine scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri. Petrarch would be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca. Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages".

Zucchero

Blues Artist

Adelmo Fornaciari, more commonly known by his stage name Zucchero Fornaciari or simply Zucchero, is an Italian rock singer and OMRI. His music is largely inspired by gospel, blues and rock music, and alternates between ballads and more rhythmic boogie-like pieces. Zucchero is the Italian word for sugar. In his career, spanning four decades, Fornaciari has sold over 40 million records around the world and has achieved numerous awards, including two World Music Awards, six IFPI Europe Platinum Awards and a Grammy Award nomination.

Umberto Eco

Novelist

Umberto Eco, OMRI is an Italian semiotician, essayist, philosopher, literary critic, and novelist. He is best known for his groundbreaking 1980 novel Il nome della rosa, an intellectual mystery combining semiotics in fiction, biblical analysis, medieval studies and literary theory. He has since written further novels, including Il pendolo di Foucault and L'isola del giorno prima. His most recent novel Il cimitero di Praga, released in 2010, was a best-seller. Eco has also written academic texts, children's books and many essays. He is founder of the Dipartimento di Comunicazione at the University of the Republic of San Marino, President of the Scuola Superiore di Studi Umanistici, University of Bologna, member of the Accademia dei Lincei and an Honorary Fellow of Kellogg College, University of Oxford.

Jovanotti

Pop rock Artist

Lorenzo Cherubini, better known as Jovanotti, is an Italian singer-songwriter and rapper. The name Jovanotti derives from the plural form of the Italian word giovanotto, i. e., giovanotti. Lorenzo Cherubini originally auditioned a band with the name "I Giovanotti," but the record producer was interested only in him. He then decided to Italo-Americanize his name as "Joe Vanotti" before conjugating it to his famous moniker "Jovanotti." The spelling Jovanotti is anglicized; the letter J is not often used in Italian, as it does not belong to its current alphabet. Jovanotti gradually departed from his early mix of hip hop, rap and disco, taking in funk, world music and even classical arrangements and ska influences. As his musical influences changed, so too did his lyrics, which over time began to increasingly address philosophical, religious and political issues, which are more typical of the Italian cantautore tradition. His social and political commitment increased as well. Some of his earlier work is also closer to keyboard-heavy 1980s pop. Most of his songs are sung in Italian; he also released a Spanish-language greatest hits album. His live album includes a short version of the Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight." Jovanotti appears on several international compilations, most notably Red Hot + Rhapsody, a 1998 tribute to George Gershwin, on which he performed "I Got Rhythm." His most famous songs are "L'Ombelico del Mondo" and "Serenata Rap." Jovanotti has also appeared in one of Luciano Pavarotti's charity concert in 1996.

Giorgio Armani

Fashion Designer

Giorgio Armani is an Italian fashion designer, particularly noted for his menswear. He is known today for his clean, tailored lines. He formed his company, Armani, in 1975, and by 2001 was acclaimed as the most successful designer to come out of Italy, with an annual turnover of $1.6 billion and a personal fortune of $8.5 billion as of 2013.

Rose McGowan

Actor

Rose Arianna McGowan is an Italian-born American actress and singer. She is best known for her role as Paige Matthews in The WB Television Network supernatural drama series Charmed. She played Ann-Margret alongside Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Elvis Presley in the CBS mini-series Elvis. In 2008, she was guest programmer and co-host of TCM's film-series program, The Essentials. She made her film debut in the 1992 comedy Encino Man, where she played a small role. Her performance as Amy Blue in the 1995 dark comedy film The Doom Generation brought her wider attention, and received an Independent Spirit Award nomination. McGowan then appeared in the 1996 hit horror film Scream and starred alongside Ben Affleck in the 1997 coming-of-age feature Going All the Way. Later, she appeared in several Hollywood films, including Devil in the Flesh, Jawbreaker, Ready to Rumble, Monkeybone and The Black Dahlia. In 2007, she was cast in the double-feature film directed by Robert Rodriguez and Quentin Tarantino Grindhouse. She also portrayed the character Grace in the crime thriller film Fifty Dead Men Walking. In 1996, McGowan was the cover model for the Henry Mancini tribute album Shots in the Dark, and was the face of American clothing company Bebe from 1998 to 1999. She has also appeared on numerous magazine covers, including Seventeen, Interview, Maxim, GQ, Entertainment Weekly and Rolling Stone. She has also frequently been featured on Maxim, FHM and Stuff magazine's sexiest women lists.

Domenico Scarlatti

Composer

Giuseppe Domenico Scarlatti was an Italian composer who spent much of his life in the service of the Portuguese and Spanish royal families. He is classified as a Baroque composer chronologically, although his music was influential in the development of the Classical style. Like his renowned father Alessandro Scarlatti he composed in a variety of musical forms, although today he is known mainly for his 555 keyboard sonatas.

Roberto Mancini

Soccer

Roberto Mancini is an Italian former football player and current manager who is currently in charge of Turkish Süper Lig club Galatasaray. As a player Mancini was best known for his time at Sampdoria, where he played more than 550 matches, and helped them win the Serie A league title, four Coppe Italia and the Cup Winners Cup, whilst being capped 36 times by Italy. As a player, he gained a penchant for becoming a future manager and would often give team talks at half-time and ultimately became an assistant to Sven-Göran Eriksson at Lazio near the end of his playing career. Mancini's first managerial role was at a cash stricken Fiorentina at only 35 years old and managed to win a Coppa Italia, but left with Fiorentina facing bankruptcy. Months later, he took over as manager at Lazio, where again he inherited financial constraints and was forced to lose a number of key players. With limited resources during his two season tenure, he managed to guide the club to another Coppa Italia. In 2004, Mancini was given the chance to manage a major club with more resources when he was offered the manager's job at Inter Milan. During his tenure at Inter, the club won three consecutive Serie A titles — an Inter club record — and a European record 17 consecutive league game victories stretching nearly half a season; Mancini became Inter's most successful manager in 30 years. Despite his domestic success, many pundits saw the repeated failure to win the coveted Champions League as the main reason for his dismissal in 2008.

Ludovico Einaudi

Minimalist Artist

Ludovico Einaudi OMRI is an Italian pianist and composer. After training at the Conservatorio Verdi in Milan and under composer Luciano Berio in the early 1980s, Einaudi started his career as a classical composer and soon began incorporating other styles and genres, including pop, rock, world music, and folk music. Einaudi composed the scores for a number of films and trailers, including The Intouchables, I'm Still Here, Doctor Zhivago, and Acquario in 1996, for which he won the Grolla d'oro for best soundtrack. He has also released a number of solo albums of piano and orchestra, notably I Giorni in 2001, Nightbook in 2009, and In a Time Lapse in 2013.

Horace

Poet

Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintillian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is also full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, and felicitously daring in his choice of words." Horace also crafted elegant hexameter verses and caustic iambic poetry. The hexameters are amusing yet serious works, friendly in tone, leading the ancient satirist Persius to comment: "as his friend laughs, Horace slyly puts his finger on his every fault; once let in, he plays about the heartstrings". Some of his iambic poetry has seemed repulsive to modern audiences. His career coincided with Rome's momentous change from Republic to Empire. An officer in the republican army defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, he was befriended by Octavian's right-hand man in civil affairs, Maecenas, and became a spokesman for the new regime. For some commentators, his association with the regime was a delicate balance in which he maintained a strong measure of independence but for others he was, in John Dryden's phrase, "a well-mannered court slave".

Benny Benassi

Dubstep Artist

Marco "Benny" Benassi is an Italian DJ and a record producer. He is best known for his 2003 summer club hit "Satisfaction".

Daniele De Rossi

Soccer

Daniele De Rossi, Ufficiale OMRI is an Italian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Serie A club A.S. Roma. He was the Roma's vice-captain and nicknamed as Capitan Futuro due to his high probability as heir-apparent to Francesco Totti's captain armband. De Rossi is recognised as a "complete midfielder" by pundits, because of his tackling, passing, strength and shooting. He is a versatile player who can play in defence and in attack. With Roma he has won the Coppa Italia twice and the 2007 Supercoppa Italiana. He was named Serie A Young Footballer of the Year in 2006 and the Italian Footballer of the Year in 2009. De Rossi has represented Italy at under-19, under-20, under-21, and senior levels. He was part of the 2006 FIFA World Cup winning-squad and has also participated at Euro 2008, the 2009 FIFA Confederations Cup, the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the Euro 2012 and 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup.

Emma Marrone

Pop rock Artist

Emmanuela Marrone, also known as Emma or Emma Marrone is an Italian pop/rock singer. After several musical experiences with several bands, in March 2010, she won the Italian talent show Amici di Maria De Filippi and signed a contract with record label Universal Music. On February 18, 2012, she achieved first place at the annual televised Sanremo Music Festival 2012 with her song Non è l'inferno. She has published, so far, 1 EP, 2 albums and 12 singles music and to date, between albums and singles, has received 2 Multiplatinum, 9 Platinum disc and 1 Gold disc. From 2012, she began playing guitar in public. In 2013, Emma was selected as the artistic director of one of the teams Amici di Maria De Filippi.

Rocco Siffredi

Pornographic actor

Rocco Siffredi is the stage name of an Italian pornographic actor, director and producer of pornographic movies who is known for his rough sex scenes. As of October 2011, he has starred in more than 450 pornographic films. Rocco took his stage name from the character "Roch Siffredi" played by Alain Delon in the French gangster film Borsalino. He is also known as the "Italian Stallion".

Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor

Holy Roman Emperor

Frederick II, was one of the most powerful Holy Roman Emperors of the Middle Ages and head of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous; however, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. Historians have searched for superlatives to describe him, as in the case of Professor Donald Detwiler, who wrote: A man of extraordinary culture, energy, and ability – called by a contemporary chronicler stupor mundi, by Nietzsche the first European, and by many historians the first modern ruler – Frederick established in Sicily and southern Italy something very much like a modern, centrally governed kingdom with an efficient bureaucracy. Viewing himself as a direct successor to the Roman Emperors of Antiquity, he was Emperor of the Romans from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; he was also a claimant to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy. At the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily. His other royal title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage and his connection with the Sixth Crusade.

Luigi Pirandello

Novelist

Luigi Pirandello was an Italian dramatist, novelist, poet and short story writer. He was awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize in Literature for his "bold and brilliant renovation of the drama and the stage". Pirandello's works include novels, hundreds of short stories, and about 40 plays, some of which are written in Sicilian. Pirandello's tragic farces are often seen as forerunners of the Theatre of the Absurd.

Fabio Capello

Soccer Midfielder

Fabio Capello is an Italian football manager and former professional footballer who is currently the manager of the Russian national team. Capello was born in San Canzian d'Isonzo. His uncle, Mario Tortul was also a football player and played for Triestina, Padova, Sampdoria and the Italian national football team. Capello is married and has a son named Pier Filippo who acts as his agent. Capello is also a collector of fine art and has a personal collection thought to be worth over £10 million. As a player Capello represented SPAL 1907, Roma, AC Milan and Juventus. He played as a midfielder and won several trophies during his career which lasted over 15 years. He won the Coppa Italia with Roma in 1969. He was most successful with Juventus, winning three Serie A titles in 1972, 1973 and 1975. With Milan he won the Coppa Italia again in 1977 and also won another Serie A in 1979. Capello also played for Italy during his career and amassed 32 caps, scoring eight goals as well. As a manager, Capello has the distinction of winning the domestic league title with every club he has coached throughout his career. In his first five seasons as a manager he won four Serie A titles with Milan, where he also won the 1993–94 UEFA Champions League, defeating Barcelona 4–0 in a memorable final. He then spent a year at Real Madrid, where he won the La Liga title at his first attempt, and in 2001 led Roma to their first league title in 18 years. Capello also won two titles at Juventus, and in 2006 returned to Real Madrid, where he won another La Liga title. Overall he has won a major league championship in seven of his 16 seasons as a coach. Capello was appointed as England manager in December 2008. During his time as England manager he was successful in tournament qualification, guiding the team to the 2010 FIFA World Cup, where they were knocked out in the second round, and 2012 European Championship, where they were knocked out in the quarter-finals under new manager Roy Hodgson. In February 2012, he resigned as manager due to a dispute with the Football Association, before being appointed coach of the Russian national team in July 2012.

Max Biaggi

Man

Massimiliano "Max" Biaggi is a former Grand Prix motorcycle road racing World Champion and winner of the 2010 and 2012 World Superbike Championship. Throughout his racing career, he has won the 250cc World Championship four consecutive times, and finished as runner-up in both the 500cc and MotoGP championships. In 2007 he switched to the World Superbike Championship, finishing third overall as a rookie and earned his first Superbike World Championship in 2010 becoming only the 2nd European from outside of the United Kingdom after Raymond Roche to do so. Biaggi announced his retirement from racing on 7 November 2012. He has been nicknamed 'il Corsaro' and 'the Roman Emperor'.

Giacomo Casanova

Author

Giacomo Girolamo Casanova was an Italian adventurer and author from the Republic of Venice. His autobiography, Histoire de ma vie, is regarded as one of the most authentic sources of the customs and norms of European social life during the 18th century. As was not uncommon at the time, Casanova often used pseudonyms, the most frequent being Chevalier de Seingalt. He also published abundantly in French under the name Jacques Casanova de Seingalt. He has become so famous for his often complicated and elaborate affairs with women that his name is now synonymous with "womanizer". He associated with European royalty, popes and cardinals, along with luminaries such as Voltaire, Goethe and Mozart. He spent his last years in Bohemia as a librarian in Count Waldstein's household, where he also wrote the story of his life.

Roberta Vinci

Tennis Player

Roberta Vinci is an Italian tennis player. As of 29 July 2013, Vinci is ranked World No. 11 in singles and World No. 1 in doubles in the WTA Tour Rankings. Vinci has won 28 WTA Tour titles, 9 in singles and 19 in doubles, including the 2012 French Open, the 2012 US Open and 2013 Australian Open title with regular partner Sara Errani. Her first title came in the 2007 Copa Colsanitas, over Tathiana Garbin. She won her second title at the 2009 Barcelona Ladies Open, over Maria Kirilenko. Her third title was at the 2010 BGL Luxembourg Open, over Julia Görges. Her fourth title was for her second victory after 2009 at the 2011 Barcelona Ladies Open, over Lucie Hradecká. Her fifth title was her first win on grass at the 2011 's-Hertogenbosch, over Jelena Dokić. Her third victory in 2011 and sixth title was in Budapest. She and her Italian teammates Mara Santangelo, Flavia Pennetta, and Francesca Schiavone beat the Belgian team 3–2 in the 2006 Fed Cup final. Justine Henin-Hardenne had to retire in the fifth and final match due to an injury in her right knee, which allowed Italy to win their first Fed Cup trophy. With the Italian team, she also won the Fed-Cup in 2009 and 2010 against the USA.

Giovanni Boccaccio

Poet

Giovanni Boccaccio was an Italian author, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and important Renaissance humanist. Boccaccio wrote a number of notable works, including the Decameron and On Famous Women. As a poet who wrote in the Italian vernacular. Boccaccio is particularly noted for his realistic dialogue, which differed from that of his contemporaries, medieval writers who usually followed formulaic models for character and plot.

Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Painting Artist

Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets. Bernini possessed the ability to depict dramatic narratives with characters showing intense psychological states, but also organise large-scale sculptural works which convey a magnificent grandeur. His skill in manipulating marble ensured he was considered a worthy successor of Michelangelo, far outshining other sculptors of his generation, including his rival, Alessandro Algardi. His talent extended beyond the confines of his sculpture to consideration of the setting in which it would be situated; his ability to synthesise sculpture, painting and architecture into a coherent conceptual and visual whole has been termed by the art historian Irving Lavin the "unity of the visual arts". A deeply religious man, working in Counter Reformation Rome, Bernini used light as an important metaphorical device in the perception of his religious settings, often using hidden light sources that could intensify the focus of religious worship, or enhance the dramatic moment of a sculptural narrative.

Benedict of Nursia

Organization founder

Benedict of Nursia is a Christian saint, honored by the Catholic Church and the Anglican Church as the patron saint of Europe and students. Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, Italy, before moving to Monte Cassino in the mountains of southern Italy. The Catholic Order of St Benedict and the Anglican Order of St Benedict are of later origin and, moreover, not an "order" as commonly understood but merely a confederation of autonomous congregations. Benedict's main achievement is his "Rule of Saint Benedict", containing precepts for his monks. It is heavily influenced by the writings of John Cassian, and shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master. But it also has a unique spirit of balance, moderation and reasonableness, and this persuaded most religious communities founded throughout the Middle Ages to adopt it. As a result, his Rule became one of the most influential religious rules in Western Christendom. For this reason, Benedict is often called the founder of western monasticism.

Paolo Maldini

Soccer

Paolo Cesare Maldini is a former Italian footballer who played as a left or central defender, being adept with either foot although naturally right footed. He spent all 25 seasons of his career at Serie A club Milan, before retiring at the age of 41 in 2009, becoming a symbol and a legend of the club. During that period, he won the Champions League five times, as well as seven Serie A titles, one Coppa Italia, five Supercoppa Italiana, five European Super Cups, two Intercontinental Cups. He played for 14 years for the Italian national team, making his debut in 1988 before retiring in 2002 with 126 caps and four World Cup participations. He is regarded to be one of the greatest defenders of the modern era. Maldini played at a world class level for his entire career spanning two and a half decades, and won the Best Defender trophy at the UEFA Club Football Awards at the age of 39. He came second to George Weah for the FIFA World Player of the Year Award in 1995, the closest a defender had ever come to winning the award, until Fabio Cannavaro, a fellow Italian won the award in 2006. He was also the Milan and Italy captain for many years and was considered a leader amongst leaders by fellow footballers, leading to the nickname "Il Capitano". Paolo's father Cesare formerly played for and captained Milan, and is a successful national U-21 manager.

Giordano Bruno

Philosopher

Giordano Bruno, born Filippo Bruno, was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician, astrologer and astronomer. His cosmological theories went beyond the Copernican model: while supporting its heliocentrism, he also correctly proposed that the Sun was just another star moving in space, and claimed as well that the universe contained an infinite number of inhabited worlds populated by other intelligent beings. The Roman Inquisition found him guilty of heresy and he was burned at the stake. After his death he gained considerable fame, particularly among 19th- and early 20th-century commentators who, focusing on his astronomical beliefs, regarded him as a martyr for free thought and modern scientific ideas. Some assessments suggest that Bruno's ideas about the universe played a smaller role in his trial than his pantheist beliefs, which differed from the interpretations and scope of God held by the Catholic Church. In addition to his cosmological writings, Bruno also wrote extensively on the art of memory, a loosely organized group of mnemonic techniques and principles. The historian Frances Yates argues that Bruno was deeply influenced by Arab astrology, Neoplatonism and Renaissance Hermeticism. Other studies of Bruno have focused on his qualitative approach to mathematics and his application of the spatial paradigms of geometry to language.

Renato Zero

Pop rock Artist

Renato Zero is the stage name of Renato Fiacchini, an Italian singer-songwriter and showman whose career spans a full 6 decades, from the 1960s to the 2010s, with 40 million records sold, becoming one of the best-selling italian recording artists. Zero was born Renato Fiacchini in downtown Rome, in Via di Ripetta, next to the famed Via del Corso. He quit his studies early to devote himself to his true passion, the arts, more specifically playing music and singing - though initially with little success. From an early age, he would wear make-up and cross-dress. He replied to the criticisms he received by taking on the pseudonym Renato Zero. He recorded his first songs in 1965: "Tu, sì", "Il deserto", "La solitudine", which were never issued. His first published single, "Non basta sai/In mezzo ai guai", sold a total of 20 copies and was quickly forgotten. He had several different jobs, including an appearance in an advertisement for ice-cream, work as a dancer in a TV show, playing and dancing in two musicals and a couple minor roles in two Fellini movies. In the late 1960s/early 1970s Zero's career was given a boost by the glam-rock movement, from which he benefited with his sexual ambiguity and androgynous appearance. At the same time, this led him to being accused of emulating other celebrities like David Bowie and, in particular, Marc Bolan. In 1973 he issued his first LP, No! Mamma, no!, but still with little success. The follow-up Invenzioni met the same fate.

Guglielmo Marconi

Physicist

Guglielmo Marconi was an Italian inventor, known for his pioneering work on long distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system. Marconi is often credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy". As an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in Britain in 1897, Marconi succeeded in making a commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists. In 1924, he was ennobled as a Marchese.