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Ethiopia country facts

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Africa Addis Ababa 96,633,458 inhabitants 1,104,300 sq km 87.51 inhabitants/sq km birr (ETB) population evolution



Unique among African countries, the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. In 1974, a military junta, the Derg, deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. Torn by bloody coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and massive refugee problems, the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). A constitution was adopted in 1994, and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. In November 2007, the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission (EEBC) issued specific coordinates as virtually demarcating the border and pronounced its work finished. Alleging that the EEBC acted beyond its mandate in issuing the coordinates, Ethiopia has not accepted them and has not withdrawn troops from previously contested areas pronounced by the EEBC as belonging to Eritrea. In August 2012, longtime leader Prime Minister MELES Zenawi died in office and was replaced by his Deputy Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn, marking the first peaceful transition of power in decades.



Eastern Africa, west of Somalia

Geographic coordinates

8 00 N, 38 00 E

Area (sq km)

total: 1,104,300 sq km
land: 1 million sq km
water: 104,300 sq km

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries (km)

total: 5,925 km
border countries: Djibouti 342 km, Eritrea 1,033 km, Kenya 867 km, Somalia 1,640 km, Sudan country facts" data-cl-code="SDS">South Sudan 1,299 km, Sudan 744 km

Coastline (km)

0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims

none (landlocked)


tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation


high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Danakil Depression -125 m
highest point: Ras Dejen 4,533 m

Natural resources

small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash, natural gas, hydropower

Land use (%)

arable land: 13.19%
permanent crops: 1.01%
other: 85.8% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

2,896 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

122 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 5.56 cu km/yr (13%/1%/86%)
per capita: 80.5 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; frequent droughts
volcanism: volcanic activity in the Great Rift Valley; Erta Ale (elev. 613 m), which has caused frequent lava flows in recent years, is the country's most active volcano; Dabbahu became active in 2005, causing evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Alayta, Dalaffilla, Dallol, Dama Ali, Fentale, Kone, Manda Hararo, and Manda-Inakir

Environment - current issues

deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; water shortages in some areas from water-intensive farming and poor management

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea

Geography - note

landlocked - entire coastline along the Red Sea was lost with the de jure independence of Eritrea on 24 May 1993; Ethiopia is, therefore, the most populous landlocked country in the world; the Blue Nile, the chief headstream of the Nile by water volume, rises in T'ana Hayk (Lake Tana) in northwest Ethiopia; three major crops are believed to have originated in Ethiopia: coffee, grain sorghum, and castor bean

People and Society


noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups (%)

Oromo 34.4%, Amhara (Amara) 27%, Somali (Somalie) 6.2%, Tigray (Tigrinya) 6.1%, Sidama 4%, Gurage 2.5%, Welaita 2.3%, Hadiya 1.7%, Afar (Affar) 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Silte 1.3%, Kefficho 1.2%, other 10.5% (2007 est.)

Languages (%)

Oromo (official working language in the State of Oromiya) 33.8%, Amharic (official national language) 29.3%, Somali (official working language of the State of Sumale) 6.2%, Tigrigna (Tigrinya) (official working language of the State of Tigray) 5.9%, Sidamo 4%, Wolaytta 2.2%, Gurage 2%, Afar (official working language of the State of Afar) 1.7%, Hadiyya 1.7%, Gamo 1.5%, Gedeo 1.3%, Opuuo 1.2%, Kafa 1.1%, other 8.1%, English (major foreign language taught in schools), Arabic (2007 est.)

Religions (%)

Ethiopian Orthodox 43.5%, Muslim 33.9%, Protestant 18.5%, traditional 2.7%, Catholic 0.7%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)


note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 44.2% (male 21,376,243/female 21,308,454)
15-24 years: 19.9% (male 9,557,462/female 9,692,275)
25-54 years: 29.2% (male 14,023,218/female 14,176,263)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 1,826,602/female 1,919,212)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 1,242,171/female 1,511,558) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Ethiopia

Median age (years)

total: 17.6 years
male: 17.4 years
female: 17.7 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

2.89% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

37.66 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

8.52 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

-0.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: repatriation of Ethiopian refugees residing in Sudan is expected to continue for several years; some Sudanese, Somali, and Eritrean refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, continue to return to their homes (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 17% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.57% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

ADDIS ABABA (capital) 2.979 million (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

350 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 55.77 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.77 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 47.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 60.75 years
male: 58.43 years
female: 63.15 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

5.23 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

4.7% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2009)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

6.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 96.8% of population
rural: 42.1% of population
total: 51.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 3.2% of population
rural: 57.9% of population
total: 48.5% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 27.4% of population
rural: 22.8% of population
total: 23.6% of population
unimproved: urban: 72.6% of population
rural: 77.2% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

1.3% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

758,600 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

47,200 (2012 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease: rabies
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

1.1% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight (%)

29.2% (2011)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

4.7% of GDP (2010)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 39%
male: 49.1%
female: 28.9% (2007 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 7 years
male: 8 years
female: 6 years (2005)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 (%)

total: 24.9%
male: 19.5%
female: 29.4% (2006)


Country name

conventional long form: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
conventional short form: Ethiopia
local long form: Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik
local short form: Ityop'iya
former: Abyssinia, Italian East Africa
abbreviation: FDRE

Government type

federal republic


name: Addis Ababa
geographic coordinates: 9 02 N, 38 42 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

9 ethnically based states (kililoch, singular - kilil) and 2 self-governing administrations* (astedaderoch, singular - astedader); Adis Abeba* (Addis Ababa), Afar, Amara (Amhara), Binshangul Gumuz, Dire Dawa*, Gambela Hizboch (Gambela Peoples), Hareri Hizb (Harari People), Oromiya (Oromia), Sumale (Somali), Tigray, Ye Debub Biheroch Bihereseboch na Hizboch (Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples)


oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years (may be traced to the Aksumite Kingdom, which coalesced in the first century B.C.)

National holiday

National Day (defeat of MENGISTU regime), 28 May (1991)


several previous; latest drafted June 1994, adopted 8 December 1994, entered into force 21 August 1995 (2013)

Legal system

civil law system

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President MULATU Teshome Wirtu (since 7 October 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister HAILEMARIAM Desalegn (since 21 September 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers ASTER Mamo, DEBRETSION Gebre-Michael, DEMEKE Mekonnen Hassen; note - prior to his approval as prime minister, HAILEMARIAM had been acting prime minister due to the death of former Prime Minister MELES
cabinet: Council of Ministers - ministers selected by the prime minister and approved by the House of People's Representatives
elections: president elected by both chambers of Parliament for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister designated by the party in power following legislative elections
election results: MULATU Teshome Wirtu elected president by acclamation

Legislative branch

bicameral Parliament consists of the House of Federation (or upper chamber responsible for interpreting the constitution and federal-regional issues) (108 seats; members chosen by state assemblies to serve five-year terms) and the House of People's Representatives (or lower chamber responsible for passing legislation) (547 seats; members directly elected by popular vote from single-member districts to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 23 May 2010 (next to be held in 2015)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - EPRDF 499, SPDP 24, BGPDP 9, ANDP 8, GPUDM 3, HNL 1, FORUM 1, APDO 1, independent 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Federal Supreme Court or Supreme Imperial Court (consists of 11 judges)
note - the Federal Supreme Court has jurisdiction for all constitutional issues
judge selection and term of office: president and vice president of Federal Supreme Court nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; other Supreme Court judges nominated by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council and appointed by the House of People's Representatives; judges serve until retirement at age 60
subordinate courts: federal high courts and federal courts of first instance; state court systems (mirror structure of federal system); sharia courts and customary and traditional courts

Political parties and leaders

Afar National Democratic Party or ANDP [Mohammed KEDIR]
All Ethiopian Unity Organization or AEUO [Hailu SHAWEL]
Arena Tigray [GEBRU Asrat]
Argoba People's Democratic Organization or APDO [Abdulkader MOHAMMED]
Benishangul Gumuz People's Democratic Party or BGPDP [Mulualem BESSE]
Coalition for Unity and Democratic Party or CUDP [AYELE Chamiso]
Ethiopian Democratic Party or EDP [MUSHE Semu]
Ethiopian Federal Democratic Forum or FORUM (a UDJ-led 6-party alliance established for the 2010 parliamentary elections) [Dr. Moga FRISSA]
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front or EPRDF (including the following organizations: Amhara National Democratic Movement or ANDM; Oromo People's Democratic Organization or OPDO; Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement or SEPDM; and Tigray People's Liberation Front or TPLF)
Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement or GPUDM
Gurage Peoples Democratic Front [GIRMA Bogale]
Harari National League or HNL [YASIN Husein]
Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement or OFDM
Oromo People's Congress or OPC [IMERERA Gudina]
Somali Democratic Alliance Forces or SODAF [BUH Hussien]
Somali People's Democratic Party or SPDP [Abdulfetah Sheck ABDULAHI]
South Ethiopian People's Democratic Union or SEPDU [TILAHUN Endeshaw]
United Ethiopian Democratic Forces or UEDF [BEYENE Petros]
Unity for Democracy and Justice or UDJ [Dr. NEGASSO Gidada]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Ethiopian People's Patriotic Front or EPPF
Ogaden National Liberation Front or ONLF
Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador GIRMA Birru (since 6 January 2011)
chancery: 3506 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 364-1200
FAX: [1] (202) 587-0195
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
consulate(s): New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Patricia Marie HASLACH (since 14 August 2013)
embassy: Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
mailing address: P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa
telephone: 130-6000
FAX: 124-2401

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red, with a yellow pentagram and single yellow rays emanating from the angles between the points on a light blue disk centered on the three bands; green represents hope and the fertility of the land, yellow symbolizes justice and harmony, while red stands for sacrifice and heroism in the defense of the land; the blue of the disk symbolizes peace and the pentagram represents the unity and equality of the nationalities and peoples of Ethiopia
note: Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, and the three main colors of her flag (adopted ca. 1895) were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became known as the Pan-African colors; the emblem in the center of the current flag was added in 1996

National symbol(s)

Abyssinian lion

National anthem

name: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woud Enat Ethiopia" (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia)
lyrics/music: DEREJE Melaku Mengesha/SOLOMON Lulu
note: adopted 1992


Economy - overview

Ethiopia's economy is based on agriculture but the government is pushing to diversify into manufacturing, textiles, and energy generation.. Coffee is a major export crop. The agricultural sector suffers from poor cultivation practices and frequent drought, but recent joint efforts by the Government of Ethiopia and donors have strengthened Ethiopia's agricultural resilience, contributing to a reduction in the number of Ethiopians threatened with starvation. The banking, insurance, telecommunications, and micro-credit industries are restricted to domestic investors, but Ethiopia has attracted significant foreign investment in textiles, leather, commercial agriculture and manufacturing. Under Ethiopia's constitution, the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants; land use certificates are now being issued in some areas so that tenants have more recognizable rights to continued occupancy and hence make more concerted efforts to improve their leaseholds. While GDP growth has remained high, per capita income is among the lowest in the world. Ethiopia's economy continues on its state-led Growth and Transformation Plan under the new collective leadership that followed Prime Minister MELES’s death. The five-year economic plan has achieved high single-digit growth rates through government-led infrastructure expansion and commercial agriculture development. Ethiopia in 2014 will continue construction of its Grand Renaissance Dam on the Nile – a controversial five billion dollar effort to develop electricity for domestic consumption and export.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$118.2 billion (2013 est.)
$110.4 billion (2012 est.)
$101.8 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$47.34 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

7% (2013 est.)
8.5% (2012 est.)
11.4% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$1,300 (2013 est.)
$1,300 (2012 est.)
$1,200 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 47%
industry: 10.8%
services: 42.2% (2013 est.)

Labor force

45.65 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 85%
industry: 5%
services: 10% (2009 est.)

Unemployment rate (%)

17.5% (2012 est.)
18% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)

39% (2012 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 25.6% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

33 (2011)
30 (2000)


revenues: $6.702 billion
expenditures: $8.042 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

14.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-2.8% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

50.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
39.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: official data cover central government debt, including debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury and treasury debt owned by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intragovernmental debt; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

8.4% (2013 est.)
22.9% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)


Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

12% (31 December 2013 est.)
14.5% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$9.006 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$9.107 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$15.43 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$15.45 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$16.07 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$16.09 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares


Agriculture - products

cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseed, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, khat, cut flowers; hides, cattle, sheep, goats; fish


food processing, beverages, textiles, leather, chemicals, metals processing, cement

Industrial production growth rate (%)

9% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.744 billion (2013 est.)
-$2.031 billion (2012 est.)


$3.214 billion (2013 est.)
$3.039 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

coffee, khat, gold, leather products, live animals, oilseeds

Exports - partners (%)

China 13%, Germany 10.8%, US 8%, Belgium 7.7%, Saudi Arabia 7.6% (2012)


$10.68 billion (2013 est.)
$10.25 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

food and live animals, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, machinery, motor vehicles, cereals, textiles

Imports - partners (%)

China 13.1%, US 11%, Saudi Arabia 8.4%, India 5.4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$3.382 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.272 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

External debt ($)

$11.99 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$10.03 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
birr (ETB) per US dollar -
19.92 (2013 est.)
17.705 (2012 est.)
14.41 (2010 est.)
11.78 (2009)
9.57 (2008)

Fiscal year

8 July - 7 July


Electricity - production (kWh)

4.929 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

4.451 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

2.061 million kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

9.9% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

89.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

0.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

100 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

430,000 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

49,080 bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

42,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

24.92 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

6.703 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

797,500 (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

20.524 million (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: inadequate telephone system with the Ethio Telecom maintaining a monopoly over telecommunication services; open-wire, microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; 2 domestic satellites provide the national trunk service
domestic: the number of fixed lines and mobile telephones is increasing from a small base; combined fixed and mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 15 per 100 persons
international: country code - 251; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; microwave radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Pacific Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

1 public TV station broadcasting nationally and 1 public radio broadcaster with stations in each of the 13 administrative districts; a few commercial radio stations and roughly a dozen community radio stations (2009)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

179 (2012)

Internet users

447,300 (2009)



57 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 40
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 20
under 914 m: 8 (2013)

Railways (km)

total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the 781 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad)
narrow gauge: 681 km 1.000-m gauge
note: railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia but is largely inoperable (2008)

Roadways (km)

total: 44,359 km
paved: 6,064 km
unpaved: 38,295 km (2007)

Merchant marine

total: 8
by type: cargo 8 (2010)

Ports and terminals

Ethiopia is landlocked and uses the ports of Djibouti in Djibouti and Berbera in Somalia


Military branches

Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF): Ground Forces, Ethiopian Air Force (Ye Ityopya Ayer Hayl, ETAF) (2013)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no compulsory military service, but the military can conduct callups when necessary and compliance is compulsory (2012)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 19,067,499
females age 16-49: 19,726,816 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 11,868,084
females age 16-49: 12,889,260 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 967,411
female: 981,714 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures (% of GDP)

0.91% of GDP (2012)
1.1% of GDP (2011)
0.91% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision, but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia; civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 244,956 (Somalia); 191,303 (Sudan country facts" data-cl-code="SDS">South Sudan); 84,271 (Eritrea); 40,781 (Sudan) (2014)
IDPs: 316,000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000; ethnic clashes; and ongoing fighting between the Ethiopian military and separatist rebel groups in the Sumale and Oromiya regions; natural disasters; most IDPs live in Sumale state) (2013)

Illicit drugs

transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe, as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa; cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export, principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries); the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center

Largest cities of Ethiopia

These are the 50 largest cities of Ethiopia ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Addis Abeba 2,757,807
2 Dire Dawa 252,347
3 Nazret 214,034
4 Bahir Dar 168,929
5 Gondar 153,942
6 Dese 136,080
7 Awassa 133,120
8 Jimma 128,330
9 Debre Zeyit 104,234
10 Kembolcha 93,709
11 Harer 90,226
12 Assela 60,191
13 Debre Birhan 57,797
14 Jijiga 57,146
15 Ziway 49,522
16 Dilla 47,029
17 Hagere Hiywet 43,928
18 Adwa 43,582
19 Gambela 42,474
20 Negele 42,358
21 Robe 41,280
22 Aksum 41,256
23 Giyon 38,401
24 Mojo 34,553
25 Goba 34,375
26 Shakiso 34,116
27 Areka 33,187
28 Boditi 33,068
29 Debre Tabor 32,665
30 Jinka 32,151
31 Gimbi 31,815
32 Asbe Teferi 30,777
33 Korem 30,638
34 Asosa 30,544
35 Butajira 30,507
36 Metu 29,654
37 Agaro 28,273
38 Kibre Mengist 27,859
39 Werota 26,818
40 Dembi Dolo 26,753
41 Dubti 26,375
42 Moyale 25,993
43 Fiche 25,763
44 Mendi 25,267
45 Kemise 23,888
46 Asasa 23,794
47 Finote Selam 23,467
48 Metehara 23,408
49 Dodola 23,120
50 Adet 22,950