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Flag of Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea country facts

Republic of Equatorial Guinea Africa Malabo 722,254 inhabitants 28,051 sq km 25.75 inhabitants/sq km Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs per US dollar -
511.4 (2012 est.)
471.87 (2011 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)) population evolution



Equatorial Guinea gained independence in 1968 after 190 years of Spanish rule. This tiny country, composed of a mainland portion plus five inhabited islands, is one of the smallest on the African continent. President Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO has ruled the country since 1979 when he seized power in a coup. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, the 1996, 2002, and 2009 presidential elections - as well as the 1999, 2004, 2008, and 2013 legislative elections - were widely seen as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has discouraged political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africa's third largest oil exporter. Despite the country's economic windfall from oil production, resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, improvements in the population's living standards have been slow to develop.



Central Africa, bordering the Bight of Biafra, between Cameroon and Gabon

Geographic coordinates

2 00 N, 10 00 E

Area (sq km)

total: 28,051 sq km
land: 28,051 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries (km)

total: 528 km
border countries: Cameroon 183 km, Gabon 345 km

Coastline (km)

296 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


tropical; always hot, humid


coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are volcanic

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Basile 3,008 m

Natural resources

petroleum, natural gas, timber, gold, bauxite, diamonds, tantalum, sand and gravel, clay

Land use (%)

arable land: 4.63%
permanent crops: 2.5%
other: 92.87% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)


Total renewable water resources (cu km)

26 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 0.02 cu km/yr (80%/15%/5%)
per capita: 31.41 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

violent windstorms; flash floods
volcanism: Santa Isabel (elev. 3,007 m), which last erupted in 1923, is the country's only historically active volcano; Santa Isabel, along with two dormant volcanoes, form Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea

Environment - current issues

tap water is not potable; deforestation

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

insular and continental regions widely separated

People and Society


noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)
adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic groups (%)

Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon 1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)

Languages (%)

Spanish (official) 67.6%, other (includes French (official), Fang, Bubi) 32.4% (1994 census)

Religions (%)

nominally Christian and predominantly Roman Catholic, pagan practices


722,254 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 40.8% (male 149,597/female 144,788)
15-24 years: 19.5% (male 71,609/female 69,061)
25-54 years: 31.5% (male 112,956/female 114,785)
55-64 years: 4.2% (male 13,052/female 17,247)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 12,310/female 16,849) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Equatorial Guinea

Median age (years)

total: 19.4 years
male: 18.8 years
female: 19.9 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

2.54% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

33.83 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

8.39 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 39.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.16% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

MALABO (capital) 137,000 (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

240 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 71.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 72.17 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 70.04 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 63.49 years
male: 62.43 years
female: 64.58 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

4.66 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

4% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2004)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 65.5% of population
rural: 41.6% of population
total: 50.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 34.5% of population
rural: 58.4% of population
total: 49.1% of population (2006 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 92.2% of population
rural: 86.8% of population
total: 88.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.8% of population
rural: 13.2% of population
total: 11.1% of population (2006 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

6.2% (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

31,400 (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

1,400 (2012 est.)

Major infectious diseases

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and dengue fever
animal contact disease: rabies (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

10.6% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight (%)

10.6% (2004)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

0.6% of GDP (2002)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94.2%
male: 97.1%
female: 91.1% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 7 years (2000)


Country name

conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea
conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea
local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee equatoriale
local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee equatoriale
former: Spanish Guinea

Government type



name: Malabo
geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Annobon, Bioko Norte, Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas


12 October 1968 (from Spain)

National holiday

Independence Day, 12 October (1968)


approved by referendum 17 November 1991; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)

Legal system

mixed system of civil and customary law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MGASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup)
head of government: Prime Minister Vicente Ehate TOMI (since 22 May 2012)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (two- term limit); election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results: Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro Obiang NGUEMA MBASOGO 95.8%, Placido MICO Abogo 3.6%, other 0.6%

Legislative branch

bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (70 seats; 55 seats directly elected and 15 appointed by the president) and the House of People's Representatives or Camara de los Diputdos or Chamber of Deputies (100 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 26 May 2013 (next to be held in 2018)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 54, CPDS 1; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 99, CPDS 1
note: note - Parliament has little power since the constitution vests all executive authority in the president; the constitutional referendum of 2011 established a bicameral legislature formed following the May 2013 elections; the newly formed Senate consists of elected and appointed (by the President) members

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the chief justice and NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 4 members)
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president for 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members appointed by the president, two of which are nominated by the Chamber of Deputies
subordinate courts: Court of Guarantees; military courts; Courts of Appeal; first instance tribunals; district and county tribunals

Political parties and leaders

Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Andres Esono ONDO]
Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Jeronimo Osa Osa ECORO] (ruling party)
Electoral Coalition or EC
Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]
Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Carmelo Mba BACALE]
Popular Union or UP [Daniel MARTINEZ Ayecaba]

Political pressure groups and leaders

ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform)
EG Justice (US-based anti-corruption group)

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Ruben Maye Nsue MANGUE (since 10 September 2013)
chancery: 2020 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 518-5700
FAX: [1] (202) 518-5252
consul general(s): Houston

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mark L. ASQUINO (since 29 June 2012)
embassy: Carretera Malabo II, Malabo, Guinea Ecuatorial
mailing address: US Embassy Malabo, US Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2520
telephone: [240] 333 09 57 41

Flag description

three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red, with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice); green symbolizes the jungle and natural resources, blue represents the sea that connects the mainland to the islands, white stands for peace, and red recalls the fight for independence

National symbol(s)

silk cotton tree

National anthem

name: "Caminemos pisando la senda" (Let Us Tread the Path)
lyrics/music: Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO/Atanasio Ndongo MIYONO or Ramiro Sanchez LOPEZ (disputed)
note: adopted 1968


Economy - overview

The discovery and exploitation of large oil and gas reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth, but fluctuating oil prices along with slowing or declining oil production have resulted in much lower GDP growth in recent years. The economy is still dominated by hydrocarbon production. The government has solicited foreign investment, particularly from the United States, to diversify the economy and in February 2014 the government hosted an economic diversification symposium focused on attracting investment in five sectors: agriculture and animal ranching, fishing, mining and petrochemicals, tourism, and financial services. Undeveloped mineral resources include gold, zinc, diamonds, columbite-tantalite, and other base metals. Forestry and farming are also minor components of GDP. Subsistence farming is the dominant form of livelihood. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings, the neglect of the rural economy under successive regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth. The government has stated its intention to reinvest some oil revenue into agriculture. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of corruption and mismanagement. The government has been widely criticized for its lack of transparency and misuse of oil revenues and has attempted to address this issue by working towards compliance with the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$19.68 billion (2013 est.)
$19.97 billion (2012 est.)
$18.96 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$17.08 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

-1.5% (2013 est.)
5.3% (2012 est.)
4.6% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$25,700 (2013 est.)
$26,900 (2012 est.)
$26,200 (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 4.6%
industry: 87.3%
services: 8.1% (2013 est.)

Labor force

195,200 (2007)

Unemployment rate (%)

22.3% (2009 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)


Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $6.837 billion
expenditures: $6.795 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

40% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

0.2% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

11% of GDP (2013 est.)
9.3% of GDP (2012 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

6% (2013 est.)
6.1% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)

8.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

15% (31 December 2013 est.)
15% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$3.001 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.023 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$3.382 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.438 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$-424.6 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$-631.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, cocoa, rice, yams, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, palm oil nuts; livestock; timber


petroleum, natural gas, sawmilling

Industrial production growth rate (%)

3.2% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$2.916 billion (2013 est.)
-$2.945 billion (2012 est.)


$15.44 billion (2013 est.)
$14.86 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

petroleum products, timber

Exports - partners (%)

Japan 18.8%, France 16.1%, China 11.7%, US 11.3%, Netherlands 7.2%, Spain 7.1%, Italy 5.1% (2012)


$7.943 billion (2013 est.)
$8.045 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

petroleum sector equipment, other equipment, construction materials, vehicles

Imports - partners (%)

Spain 18.4%, China 17.4%, US 11.1%, France 8%, Italy 5.9%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, Brazil 4.4% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$4.027 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.397 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

External debt ($)

$2.104 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.858 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
Cooperation Financiere en Afrique Centrale francs (XAF) per US dollar -
500.7 (2013 est.)
510.53 (2012 est.)
495.28 (2010 est.)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)

Fiscal year

calendar year


Electricity - production (kWh)

97 million kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

90.21 million kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

38,000 kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

97.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

2.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

318,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

319,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

1.1 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

3,074 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

1,588 bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

2,320 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

4,561 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

6.88 billion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

1.58 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

5.26 billion cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

36.81 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

5.232 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

14,900 (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

501,000 (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: digital fixed-line network in most major urban areas and good mobile coverage
domestic: fixed-line density is about 2 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has been increasing and in 2011 stood at about 60 percent of the population
international: country code - 240; international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)

Broadcast media

state maintains control of broadcast media with domestic broadcast media limited to 1 state-owned TV station, 1 private TV station owned by the president's eldest son, 1 state-owned radio station, and 1 private radio station owned by the president's eldest son; satellite TV service is available; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible (2013)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

7 (2012)

Internet users

14,400 (2009)



7 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)

Pipelines (km)

condensate 42 km; condensate/gas 5 km; gas 79 km; oil 71 km (2013)

Roadways (km)

total: 2,880 km (2000)

Merchant marine

total: 5
by type: cargo 1, chemical tanker 1, petroleum tanker 3
foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Bata, Luba, Malabo


Military branches

Equatorial Guinea Armed Forces (FAGE): Equatorial Guinea National Guard (Guardia Nacional de Guinea Ecuatorial, GNGE (Army); Navy; Air Force (2013)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18 years of age for selective compulsory military service, although conscription is rare in practice; 2-year service obligation; women hold only administrative positions in the Navy (2013)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 151,147
females age 16-49: 150,345 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 113,277
females age 16-49: 115,320 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 7,398
female: 7,126 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delayed final delimitation; UN urged Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabon-occupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay

Trafficking in persons

current situation: Equatorial Guinea is a source and destination country for women and children subjected to forced labor and sexual exploitation; children have been trafficked from nearby countries for work as domestic servants, market laborers, ambulant vendors, and launderers; women may also be trafficked to Equatorial Guinea from Cameroon, Benin, other neighboring countries, and China for forced labor or prostitution; Equatorial Guinean girls may be encouraged by their parents to engage in the sex trade in urban centers to receive groceries, gifts, housing, and money
tier rating: Tier 3 - Equatorial Guinea does not fully comply with the minimum standards on the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government has initiated no investigations or prosecutions of suspected trafficking offenses and demonstrated no efforts to identify victims or to provide them with necessary services, despite being required to do so under its 2004 anti-trafficking law; the government shows a slight increase in its efforts to prevent trafficking with the creation in 2012 of a working-level committee to combat human trafficking, but it has not launched any public anti-trafficking campaigns or implemented any programs to address forced child labor (2013)

Largest cities of Equatorial Guinea

These are the 50 largest cities of Equatorial Guinea ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Bata 173,036
2 Malabo 156,039
3 Ebebiyín 24,857
4 Aconibe 11,199
5 Añisoc 10,197
6 Luba 8,668
7 Evinayong 8,468
8 Mongomo 6,397
9 Micomeseng 5,818