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Canada country facts

North America Ottawa 34,834,841 inhabitants 9,984,670 sq km 3.49 inhabitants/sq km Canadian dollars (CAD) population evolution



A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically, the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across the world's longest unfortified border. Canada faces the political challenges of meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness, as well as responding to the particular concerns of predominantly francophone Quebec. Canada also aims to develop its diverse energy resources while maintaining its commitment to the environment.



Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US

Geographic coordinates

60 00 N, 95 00 W

Area (sq km)

total: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly larger than the US

Land boundaries (km)

total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
note: Canada is the World's largest country that borders only one country

Coastline (km)

202,080 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north


mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m

Natural resources

iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower

Land use (%)

arable land: 4.3%
permanent crops: 0.49%
other: 95.2% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

8,699 sq km (2004)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

2,902 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 42.2 cu km/yr (20%/70%/10%)
per capita: 1,589 cu m/yr (2010)

Natural hazards

continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains remain dormant

Environment - current issues

air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities

Environment - international agreements

party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation

Geography - note

second-largest country in world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km (100 mi) of the US border; Canada has more fresh water than any other country and almost 9% of Canadian territory is water; Canada has at least 2 million and possibly over 3 million lakes - that is more than all other countries combined

People and Society


noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian

Ethnic groups (%)

Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%
note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)

Languages (%)

English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)

Religions (%)

Catholic 40.6% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, Orthodox 1.6%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)


34,834,841 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 15.5% (male 2,764,691/female 2,628,413)
15-24 years: 12.7% (male 2,267,210/female 2,142,085)
25-54 years: 41% (male 7,244,109/female 7,052,512)
55-64 years: 13.5% (male 2,336,202/female 2,380,703)
65 years and over: 17.3% (male 2,670,482/female 3,348,434) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Canada

Median age (years)

total: 41.7 years
male: 40.4 years
female: 42.9 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

0.76% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

10.29 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

8.31 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

5.66 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 80.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.06% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Toronto 5.573 million; Montreal 3.856 million; Vancouver 2.267 million; Calgary 1.216 million; OTTAWA (capital) 1.208 million; Edmonton 1.142 million (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.79 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

12 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 4.71 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.04 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 81.67 years
male: 79.07 years
female: 84.42 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

1.59 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

11.2% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

2.07 physicians/1,000 population (2010)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

3.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.2% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)

0.3% (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

68,000 (2009 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

26.2% (2008)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

5.4% of GDP (2011)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 16 years (2000)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 (%)

total: 14.3%
male: 15.9%
female: 12.6% (2012)


Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada

Government type

a parliamentary democracy, a federation, and a constitutional monarchy


name: Ottawa
geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
note: Canada has six time zones

Administrative divisions

10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*


1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)

National holiday

Canada Day, 1 July (1867)


made up of unwritten and written acts, customs, judicial decisions, and traditions dating from 1763; the written part of the constitution consists of the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which created a federation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982; several amendments to Constitution Act, 1982, last in 2011 (2011)

Legal system

common law system except in Quebec where civil law based on the French civil code prevails

International law organization participation

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

head of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General David JOHNSTON (since 1 October 2010)
head of government: Prime Minister Stephen Joseph HARPER (since 6 February 2006)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister usually from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons generally designated prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (105 seats; members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister and serve until 75 years of age) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve a maximum of four-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held on 2 May 2011 (next to be held no later than 19 October 2015)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Conservative Party 39.6%, NDP 30.6%, Liberal Party 18.9%, Bloc Quebecois 6%, Greens 3.9%; seats by party - Conservative Party 166, NDP 103, Liberal Party 34, Bloc Quebecois 4, Greens 1

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Court of Canada (consists of the chief justice and 8 judges)
note - in 1949, Canada finally abolished all appeals beyond its Supreme Court to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London)
judge selection and term of office: chief justice and judges appointed by the prime minister in council; all judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 75
subordinate courts: federal level: Federal Court of Appeal; Federal Court; Tax Court; federal administrative tribunals; courts martial; provincial/territorial: provincial superior, appeals, first instance, and specialized courts; in 1999, the Nunavut Court - a circuit court with the power of a superior court and the territorial courts - was established to serve isolated settlements

Political parties and leaders

Bloc Quebecois [Daniel PAILLE]
Conservative Party of Canada [Stephen HARPER]
Green Party [Elizabeth MAY]
Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU]
New Democratic Party or NDP [Thomas MULCAIR]

Political pressure groups and leaders

other: agricultural sector; automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists; public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions

International organization participation

ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-20, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Gary DOER (since 23 October 2009)
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, San Francisco/Silicon Valley, Seattle
consulate(s): Anchorage (AK), Houston, Palo Alto (CA), Philadelphia, Phoenix, Raleigh (NC), Salt Lake City, San Diego, Tucson

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador (Bruce A. Heyman has been nominated; The ambassador is scheduled to present his credentials on 8 April 2014); Charge d'Affaires Richard M. Sanders (since 25 July 2013)
embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburg, NY 13669-0430; P.O. Box 866, Station B, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5T1
telephone: [1] (613) 688-5335
FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec City, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg

Flag description

two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian symbol; the official colors of Canada are red and white

National symbol(s)

maple leaf

National anthem

name: "O Canada"
lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile ROUTHIER [French], Robert Stanley WEIR [English]/Calixa LAVALLEE
note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, "O Canada" served as an unofficial anthem many years before its official adoption; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a Commonwealth realm, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)


Economy - overview

As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US, its principal trading partner. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian merchandise exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power. Given its abundant natural resources, highly skilled labor force, and modern capital plant, Canada enjoyed solid economic growth from 1993 through 2007. Buffeted by the global economic crisis, the economy dropped into a sharp recession in the final months of 2008, and Ottawa posted its first fiscal deficit in 2009 after 12 years of surplus. Canada's major banks, however, emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada achieved marginal growth in 2010-13 and plans to balance the budget by 2015. In addition, the country's petroleum sector is rapidly expanding, because Alberta's oil sands significantly boosted Canada's proven oil reserves. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.518 trillion (2013 est.)
$1.494 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.469 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.825 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

1.6% (2013 est.)
1.7% (2012 est.)
2.5% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$43,100 (2013 est.)
$42,900 (2012 est.)
$42,700 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 1.7%
industry: 28.4%
services: 69.9% (2013 est.)

Labor force

19.08 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 2%
manufacturing: 13%
construction: 6%
services: 76%
other: 3% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate (%)

7.1% (2013 est.)
7.3% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)

note: this figure is the Low Income Cut-Off (LICO), a calculation that results in higher figures than found in many comparable economies; Canada does not have an official poverty line (2008)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: 2.6%
highest 10%: 24.8% (2000)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

32.1 (2005)
31.5 (1994)


revenues: $687.8 billion
expenditures: $740.8 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

37.7% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-2.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

86.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
85.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
note: figures are for gross general government debt, as opposed to net federal debt; gross general government debt includes both intragovernmental debt and the debt of public entities at the sub-national level

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

1% (2013 est.)
1.5% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)

1% (31 December 2010 est.)
0.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

3% (31 December 2013 est.)
3% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$699.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$648.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$1.539 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.488 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$3.126 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$3.091 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$2.016 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.907 trillion (31 December 2011)
$2.16 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Agriculture - products

wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits, vegetables; dairy products; fish; forest products


transportation equipment, chemicals, processed and unprocessed minerals, food products, wood and paper products, fish products, petroleum, natural gas

Industrial production growth rate (%)

1.4% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$59.5 billion (2013 est.)
-$62.27 billion (2012 est.)


$458.7 billion (2013 est.)
$462.9 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

motor vehicles and parts, industrial machinery, aircraft, telecommunications equipment; chemicals, plastics, fertilizers; wood pulp, timber, crude petroleum, natural gas, electricity, aluminum

Exports - partners (%)

US 74.5%, China 4.3%, UK 4.1% (2012)


$471 billion (2013 est.)
$474.9 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, crude oil, chemicals, electricity, durable consumer goods

Imports - partners (%)

US 50.6%, China 11%, Mexico 5.5% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$68.55 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$65.82 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

External debt ($)

$1.331 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.191 trillion (31 December 2011)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$1.038 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$992.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$1.047 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$991.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
Canadian dollars (CAD) per US dollar -
1.03 (2013 est.)
0.9992 (2012 est.)
1.0302 (2010 est.)
1.1431 (2009)
1.0364 (2008)

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March


Electricity - production (kWh)

618.9 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

499.9 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

57.97 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

11.39 billion kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

138.6 million kW (2011 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

31.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

9.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

54.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

4.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

3.856 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

1.576 million bbl/day (2011 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

770,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

173.1 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

2.016 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

2.259 million bbl/day

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

1.073 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

249,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

143.1 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

82.48 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

88.29 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

31.31 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

1.93 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

552.6 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

18.01 million (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

26.263 million (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: country code - 1; submarine cables provide links to the US and Europe; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean, and 2 Intersputnik - Atlantic Ocean region) (2011)

Broadcast media

2 public TV broadcasting networks each with a large number of network affiliates; several private-commercial networks also with multiple network affiliates; overall, about 150 TV stations; multi-channel satellite and cable systems provide access to a wide range of stations including US stations; mix of public and commercial radio broadcasters with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the public radio broadcaster, operating 4 radio networks, Radio Canada International, and radio services to indigenous populations in the north; roughly 2,000 licensed radio stations in Canada (2008)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

8.743 million (2012)

Internet users

26.96 million (2009)



1,467 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 523
over 3,047 m: 21
2,438 to 3,047 m: 19
1,524 to 2,437 m: 147
914 to 1,523 m: 257
under 914 m: 79 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 944
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 385
under 914 m: 484 (2013)


26 (2013)

Pipelines (km)

gas and liguid petroleum 100,000 km (2013)

Railways (km)

total: 46,552 km
standard gauge: 46,552 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)

Roadways (km)

total: 1,042,300 km
paved: 415,600 km (includes 17,000 km of expressways)
unpaved: 626,700 km (2008)

Waterways (km)

636 km (Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States) (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 181
by type: bulk carrier 62, cargo 15, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, combination ore/oil 1, container 2, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 63, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 6
foreign-owned: 19 (Estonia 1, France 1, Netherlands 1, Norway 4, Sweden 2, US 10)
registered in other countries: 225 (Australia 5, Bahamas 96, Barbados 11, Cambodia 2, Cyprus 2, Honduras 1, Hong Kong 77, Liberia 2, Malta 5, Marshall Islands 8, Norway 1, Panama 6, Spain 4, Vanuatu 5) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Halifax, Saint John (New Brunswick), Vancouver
river and lake port(s): Montreal, Quebec City, Sept-Isles (St. Lawrence); Fraser River Port (Fraser); Hamilton (Lake Ontario)
oil/gas terminal(s): Lower Lakes terminal
dry bulk cargo port(s): Port-Cartier (iron ore and grain),
container port(s): Montreal (1,362,975), Vancouver (2,507,032)(2011)
LNG terminal(s) (import): Saint John


Military branches

Canadian Forces: Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, Canada Command (homeland security) (2011)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

17 years of age for voluntary male and female military service (with parental consent); 16 years of age for Reserve and Military College applicants; Canadian citizenship or permanent residence status required; maximum 34 years of age; service obligation 3-9 years (2012)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 8,031,266
females age 16-49: 7,755,550 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 6,633,472
females age 16-49: 6,389,669 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 218,069
female: 206,195 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures (% of GDP)

1.24% of GDP (2012)
1.31% of GDP (2011)
1.24% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the Gulf of Maine including the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; Canada and the United States dispute how to divide the Beaufort Sea and the status of the Northwest Passage but continue to work cooperatively to survey the Arctic continental shelf; US works closely with Canada to intensify security measures for monitoring and controlling legal and illegal movement of people, transport, and commodities across the international border; sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland; commencing the collection of technical evidence for submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of claims for continental shelf beyond 200 nm from its declared baselines in the Arctic, as stipulated in Article 76, paragraph 8, of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Refugees and internally displaced persons

refugees (country of origin): 17,381 (Colombia); 15,344 (China); 12,326 (Sri Lanka); 10,641 (Pakistan); 7,872 (Haiti); 6,512 (Mexico) (2013)

Illicit drugs

illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; increasing ecstasy production, some of which is destined for the US; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector

Largest cities of Canada

These are the 50 largest cities of Canada ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 Toronto 4,612,187
2 Montreal 3,268,513
3 Vancouver 1,837,970
4 Calgary 968,475
5 Ottawa 874,433
6 Edmonton 822,319
7 Hamilton 653,637
8 Quebec 645,623
9 Winnipeg 632,069
10 Kitchener 409,111
11 London 346,774
12 Victoria 289,625
13 Windsor 278,013
14 Halifax 266,012
15 Oshawa 247,989
16 Saskatoon 198,957
17 Barrie 182,070
18 Regina 176,182
19 Abbotsford 151,685
20 Sherbrooke 129,447
21 Kelowna 125,110
22 Trois-Rivières 119,693
23 Guelph 115,763
24 Kingston 114,243
25 Waterloo 110,800
26 Sudbury 109,724
27 Thunder Bay 99,336
28 Kanata 93,541
29 Saint John 87,857
30 Brantford 87,761
31 Moncton 87,467
32 Nanaimo 84,906
33 Sarnia 82,998
34 Peterborough 75,879
35 Red Deer 73,595
36 Lethbridge 70,619
37 Kamloops 68,715
38 White Rock 66,450
39 Prince George 65,558
40 Belleville 65,368
41 Sault Sainte Marie 63,967
42 Medicine Hat 63,140
43 Drummondville 59,489
44 Saint-Jérôme 54,948
45 Granby 53,979
46 Fredericton 52,337
47 Chilliwack 51,942
48 Saint-Hyacinthe 50,327
49 North Bay 50,171
50 Shawinigan 49,161