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Brazil country facts

Federative Republic of Brazil South America Brasilia 202,656,788 inhabitants 8,514,877 sq km 23.80 inhabitants/sq km reals (BRL) population evolution



Following more than three centuries under Portuguese rule, Brazil gained its independence in 1822, maintaining a monarchical system of government until the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the subsequent proclamation of a republic by the military in 1889. Brazilian coffee exporters politically dominated the country until populist leader Getulio VARGAS rose to power in 1930. By far the largest and most populous country in South America, Brazil underwent more than a half century of populist and military government until 1985, when the military regime peacefully ceded power to civilian rulers. Brazil continues to pursue industrial and agricultural growth and development of its interior. Exploiting vast natural resources and a large labor pool, it is today South America's leading economic power and a regional leader, one of the first in the area to begin an economic recovery. High income inequality and crime remain pressing problems, as well as recent years' slow down in economic growth.



Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates

10 00 S, 55 00 W

Area (sq km)

total: 8,514,877 sq km
land: 8,459,417 sq km
water: 55,460 sq km
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Area - comparative (sq km)

slightly smaller than the US
Area comparison map

Land boundaries (km)

total: 16,145 km
border countries: Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,403 km, Colombia 1,790 km, French Guiana 649 km, Guyana 1,308 km, Paraguay 1,371 km, Peru 2,659 km, Suriname 515 km, Uruguay 1,050 km, Venezuela 2,137 km

Coastline (km)

7,491 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin


mostly tropical, but temperate in south


mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m

Natural resources

bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use (%)

arable land: 8.45%
permanent crops: 0.83%
other: 90.72% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

54,000 sq km (2011)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

8,233 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 58.07 cu km/yr (28%/17%/55%)
per capita: 306 cu m/yr (2006)

Natural hazards

recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues

deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills

Environment - international agreements

party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

largest country in South America and in the Southern Hemisphere; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

People and Society


noun: Brazilian(s)
adjective: Brazilian

Ethnic groups (%)

white 47.7%, mulatto (mixed white and black) 43.1%, black 7.6%, Asian 1.1%, indigenous 0.4% (2010 est.)

Languages (%)

Portuguese (official and most widely spoken language)
note: less common languages include Spanish (border areas and schools), German, Italian, Japanese, English, and a large number of minor Amerindian languages

Religions (%)

Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Protestant 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%, Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)

Demographic profile

Brazil's rapid fertility decline since the 1960s is the main factor behind the country's slowing population growth rate, aging population, and fast-paced demographic transition. Brasilia has not taken full advantage of its large working-age population to develop its human capital and strengthen its social and economic institutions but is funding a study abroad program to bring advanced skills back to the country. The current favorable age structure will begin to shift around 2025, with the labor force shrinking and the elderly starting to compose an increasing share of the total population. Well-funded public pensions have nearly wiped out poverty among the elderly, and Bolsa Familia and other social programs have lifted tens of millions out of poverty. More than half of Brazil's population is considered middle class, but poverty and income inequality levels remain high; the Northeast, North, and Center-West, women, and black, mixed race, and indigenous populations are disproportionately affected. Disparities in opportunities foster social exclusion and contribute to Brazil's high crime rate, particularly violent crime in cities and favelas.
Brazil has traditionally been a net recipient of immigrants, with its southeast being the prime destination. After the importation of African slaves was outlawed in the mid-19th century, Brazil sought Europeans (Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Germans) and later Asians (Japanese) to work in agriculture, especially coffee cultivation. Recent immigrants come mainly from Argentina, Chile, and Andean countries (many are unskilled illegal migrants) or are returning Brazilian nationals. Since Brazil's economic downturn in the 1980s, emigration to the United States, Europe, and Japan has been rising but is negligible relative to Brazil's total population. The majority of these emigrants are well-educated and middle-class. Fewer Brazilian peasants are emigrating to neighboring countries to take up agricultural work.


202,656,788 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 23.8% (male 24,534,129/female 23,606,332)
15-24 years: 16.5% (male 16,993,708/female 16,521,057)
25-54 years: 43.7% (male 43,910,790/female 44,674,915)
55-64 years: 8.4% (male 8,067,022/female 9,036,519)
65 years and over: 7.6% (male 6,507,069/female 8,805,247) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Brazil

Median age (years)

total: 30.7 years
male: 29.9 years
female: 31.5 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

0.8% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

14.72 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

6.54 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

-0.15 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 84.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.15% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

Sao Paulo 19.924 million; Rio de Janeiro 11.96 million; Belo Horizonte 5.487 million; Porto Alegre 3.933 million; Recife 3.733 million; BRASILIA (capital) 3.813 million (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Maternal mortality rate (deaths/100,000 live births)

56 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 19.21 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 22.47 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.78 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 73.28 years
male: 69.73 years
female: 77 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

1.79 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

8.9% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

1.76 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

2.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 85.3% of population
total: 97.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 14.7% of population
total: 2.5% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 87% of population
rural: 49.2% of population
total: 81.3% of population
unimproved: urban: 13% of population
rural: 50.8% of population
total: 18.7% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

18.8% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight (%)

2.2% (2007)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

5.8% of GDP (2010)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 90.4%
male: 90.1%
female: 90.7% (2010 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 (%)

total: 15.4%
male: 12.2%
female: 19.8% (2011)


Country name

conventional long form: Federative Republic of Brazil
conventional short form: Brazil
local long form: Republica Federativa do Brasil
local short form: Brasil

Government type

federal republic


name: Brasilia
geographic coordinates: 15 47 S, 47 55 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins third Sunday in October; ends third Sunday in February
note: Brazil has three time zones, including one for the Fernando de Noronha Islands

Administrative divisions

26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins


7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

National holiday

Independence Day, 7 September (1822)


several previous; latest ratified 5 October 1988; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)

Legal system

civil law; note - a new civil law code was enacted in 2002 replacing the 1916 code

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


voluntary between 16 to under 18 years of age and over 70; compulsory 18 to 70 years of age; note - military conscripts by law cannot vote

Executive branch

chief of state: President Dilma ROUSSEFF (since 1 January 2011); Vice President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 1 January 2011); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Dilma ROUSSEFF (since 1 January 2011); Vice President Michel Miguel Elias TEMER Lulia (since 1 January 2011)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 3 October 2010 with runoff on 31 October 2010 (next to be held on 5 October 2014 and, if necessary, a runoff election on 26 October 2014)
election results: Dilma ROUSSEFF (PT) elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Dilma ROUSSEFF 56.01%, Jose SERRA (PSDB) 43.99%

Legislative branch

bicameral National Congress or Congresso Nacional consists of the Federal Senate or Senado Federal (81 seats; 3 members from each state and federal district elected according to the principle of majority to serve eight-year terms; one-third and two-thirds of members elected every four years, alternately) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara dos Deputados (513 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
elections: Federal Senate - last held on 3 October 2010 for two-thirds of the Senate (next to be held in October 2014 for one-third of the Senate); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 3 October 2010 (next to be held in October 2014)
election results: Federal Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PMDB 19, PT 15, PSDB 11, DEM (formerly PFL) 7, PTB 6, PP 4, PDT 4, PR 4, PSB 3, PCdoB 2, PSOL 2, other 4; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PT 88, PMDB 79, PSDB 53, DEM (formerly PFL) 43, PP 41, PR 41, PSB 34, PDT 28, PTB 21, PSC 17, PCdoB 15, PPS 12, PPS 12, PRB 8, PMN 4, PSOL 3, other 26

Judicial branch

highest court(s): Supreme Federal Court (consists of 11 justices)
judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president and approved by the Federal Senate; justices appointed to serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts: Federal Appeals Court, Superior Court of Justice, Superior Electoral Court, regional federal courts; state court system

Political parties and leaders

Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO]
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER]
Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Benito GAMA]
Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz]
Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA]
Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES]
Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB [Eduardo CAMPOS]
Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO]
Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL]
Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO]
Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI]
the Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO] (formerly Liberal Front Party or PFL)
Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS]
Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA]
Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO]
Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE]
National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA]
National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU]
National Mobilization Party or PMN [Oscar Noronha FILHO]
Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO]
Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE]
Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA]
Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE]
Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Gilberto KASSAB]
Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR]
Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO]
United Socialist Workers' Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA]
Workers' Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA]
Workers' Party or PT [Rui FALCAO]

Political pressure groups and leaders

Landless Workers' Movement or MST
other: industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers' associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches and the Catholic Church

International organization participation

AfDB (nonregional member), BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, CPLP, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, LAS (observer), Mercosur, MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, Paris Club (associate), PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Mauro Luiz Iecker VIEIRA (since 11 January 2010)
chancery: 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 238-2805
FAX: [1] (202) 238-2827
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Hartford (CT), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Liliana AYALDE (since 1 August 2013)
embassy: Avenida das Nacoes, Quadra 801, Lote 3, Distrito Federal Cep 70403-900, Brasilia
mailing address: Unit 7500, DPO, AA 34030
telephone: [55] (61) 3312-7000
FAX: [55] (61) 3225-9136
consulate(s) general: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo
consulate(s): Recife

Flag description

green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial globe with 27 white five-pointed stars; the globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress); the current flag was inspired by the banner of the former Empire of Brazil (1822-1889); on the imperial flag, the green represented the House of Braganza of Pedro I, the first Emperor of Brazil, while the yellow stood for the Habsburg Family of his wife; on the modern flag the green represents the forests of the country and the yellow rhombus its mineral wealth; the blue circle and stars, which replaced the coat of arms of the original flag, depict the sky over Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889 - the day the Republic of Brazil was declared; the number of stars has changed with the creation of new states and has risen from an original 21 to the current 27 (one for each state and the Federal District)

National symbol(s)

Southern Cross constellation

National anthem

name: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Brazilian National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Joaquim Osorio Duque ESTRADA/Francisco Manoel DA SILVA
note: music adopted 1890, lyrics adopted 1922; the anthem's music, composed in 1822, was used unofficially for many years before it was adopted


Economy - overview

Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, and a rapidly expanding middle class, Brazil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries, and Brazil is expanding its presence in world markets. Since 2003, Brazil has steadily improved its macroeconomic stability, building up foreign reserves, and reducing its debt profile by shifting its debt burden toward real denominated and domestically held instruments. In 2008, Brazil became a net external creditor and two ratings agencies awarded investment grade status to its debt. After strong growth in 2007 and 2008, the onset of the global financial crisis hit Brazil in 2008. Brazil experienced two quarters of recession, as global demand for Brazil's commodity-based exports dwindled and external credit dried up. However, Brazil was one of the first emerging markets to begin a recovery. In 2010, consumer and investor confidence revived and GDP growth reached 7.5%, the highest growth rate in the past 25 years. Rising inflation led the authorities to take measures to cool the economy; these actions and the deteriorating international economic situation slowed growth in 2011-13. Unemployment is at historic lows and Brazil's traditionally high level of income inequality has declined for each of the last 14 years. Brazil's historically high interest rates have made it an attractive destination for foreign investors. Large capital inflows over the past several years have contributed to the appreciation of the currency, hurting the competitiveness of Brazilian manufacturing and leading the government to intervene in foreign exchange markets and raise taxes on some foreign capital inflows. President Dilma ROUSSEFF has retained the previous administration's commitment to inflation targeting by the central bank, a floating exchange rate, and fiscal restraint.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$2.416 trillion (2013 est.)
$2.362 trillion (2012 est.)
$2.342 trillion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$2.19 trillion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

2.3% (2013 est.)
0.9% (2012 est.)
2.7% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$12,100 (2013 est.)
$11,900 (2012 est.)
$11,900 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 5.5%
industry: 26.4%
services: 68.1%
(2013 est.)

Labor force

107.3 million (2013 est.)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 15.7%
industry: 13.3%
services: 71%
(2011 est.)

Unemployment rate (%)

5.7% (2013 est.)
5.5% (2012 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)

note: official Brazilian data show 4.2% of the population being below the "extreme" poverty line in 2011 (2009 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: 0.8%
highest 10%: 42.9% (2009 est.)

Distribution of family income - Gini index

51.9 (2012)
55.3 (2001)


revenues: $851.1 billion
expenditures: $815.6 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

38.9% of GDP (2013 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

1.6% of GDP (2013 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

59.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
58.8% of GDP (2012 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

6.2% (2013 est.)
5.4% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)

10% (31 December 2013 est.)
11% (31 December 2011 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

26.9% (31 December 2013 est.)
36.64% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$157.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$159.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$870.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$863.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$2.435 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
$2.381 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares

$1.23 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
$1.229 trillion (31 December 2011)
$1.546 trillion (31 December 2010 est.)

Agriculture - products

coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef


textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment

Industrial production growth rate (%)

3% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$77.63 billion (2013 est.)
-$54.23 billion (2012 est.)


$244.8 billion (2013 est.)
$242.6 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos

Exports - partners (%)

China 17%, US 11.1%, Argentina 7.4%, Netherlands 6.2% (2012)


$241.4 billion (2013 est.)
$223.2 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics

Imports - partners (%)

China 15.3%, US 14.6%, Argentina 7.4%, Germany 6.4%, South Korea 4.1% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$378.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$373.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

External debt ($)

$475.9 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$438.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home

$663.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$604.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad

$179.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$177.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
reals (BRL) per US dollar -
2.153 (2013 est.)
1.9546 (2012 est.)
1.7592 (2010 est.)
2 (2009)
1.8644 (2008)

Fiscal year

calendar year


Electricity - production (kWh)

530.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

455.8 billion kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

2.544 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

38.43 billion kWh (2011 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

113.7 million kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

19.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

1.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

71% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

7.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

2.652 million bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

619,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

343,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

13.15 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

2.108 million bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

2.594 million bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

158,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

457,400 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

17.03 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

25.2 billion cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

400 million cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

13.3 billion cu m (2012 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

395.5 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

475.4 million Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

44.3 million (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

248.324 million (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: good working system including an extensive microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 64 earth stations
domestic: fixed-line connections have remained relatively stable in recent years and stand at about 20 per 100 persons; less expensive mobile-cellular technology has been a major driver in expanding telephone service to the lower-income segments of the population with mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 120 per 100 persons
international: country code - 55; landing point for a number of submarine cables, including Americas-1, Americas-2, Atlantis-2, GlobeNet, South America-1, South American Crossing/Latin American Nautilus, and UNISUR that provide direct connectivity to South and Central America, the Caribbean, the US, Africa, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region east), connected by microwave relay system to Mercosur Brazilsat B3 satellite earth station (2011)

Broadcast media

state-run Radiobras operates a radio and a TV network; more than 1,000 radio stations and more than 100 TV channels operating - mostly privately owned; private media ownership highly concentrated (2007)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

26.577 million (2012)

Internet users

75.982 million (2009)



4,093 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 698
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 179
914 to 1,523 m: 436
under 914 m: 49 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 3,395
1,524 to 2,437 m: 92
914 to 1,523 m: 1,619
under 914 m: 1,684 (2013)


13 (2013)

Pipelines (km)

condensate/gas 251 km; gas 17,312 km; liquid petroleum gas 352 km; oil 4,831 km; refined products 4,722 km (2013)

Railways (km)

total: 28,538 km
broad gauge: 5,627 km 1.600-m gauge (467 km electrified)
standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge
narrow gauge: 22,717 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

Roadways (km)

total: 1,580,964 km
paved: 212,798 km
unpaved: 1,368,166 km
note: does not include urban roads (2010)

Waterways (km)

50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2012)

Merchant marine

total: 109
by type: bulk carrier 18, cargo 16, chemical tanker 7, container 13, liquefied gas 11, petroleum tanker 39, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 27 (Chile 1, Denmark 3, Germany 6, Greece 1, Norway 3, Spain 12, Turkey 1)
registered in other countries: 36 (Argentina 1, Bahamas 1, Ghana 1, Liberia 20, Marshall Islands 1, Panama 3, Singapore 9) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Belem, Paranagua, Rio Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Sao Sebastiao, Tubarao
river port(s): Manaus (Amazon)
dry bulk cargo port(s): Sepetiba ore terminal
container ports (TEUs): Santos (2,985,922), Itajai (983,985)(2011)
oil/gas terminal(s): DTSE/Gegua oil terminal, Ilha Grande (Gebig), Guaiba Island terminal, Guamare oil terminal
LNG terminal(s) (import): Pecem, Rio de Janiero


Military branches

Brazilian Army (Exercito Brasileiro, EB), Brazilian Navy (Marinha do Brasil (MB), includes Naval Air and Marine Corps (Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais)), Brazilian Air Force (Forca Aerea Brasileira, FAB) (2011)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18-45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 9-12 months; 17-45 years of age for voluntary service; an increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps (2012)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 53,350,703
females age 16-49: 53,433,918 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 38,993,989
females age 16-49: 44,841,661 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 1,733,168
female: 1,672,477 (2010 est.)

Military expenditures (% of GDP)

1.47% of GDP (2012)
1.49% of GDP (2011)
1.47% of GDP (2010)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international

uncontested boundary dispute between Brazil and Uruguay over Braziliera/Brasiliera Island in the Quarai/Cuareim River leaves the tripoint with Argentina in question; smuggling of firearms and narcotics continues to be an issue along the Uruguay-Brazil border; Colombian-organized illegal narcotics and paramilitary activities penetrate Brazil's border region with Venezuela

Illicit drugs

second-largest consumer of cocaine in the world; illicit producer of cannabis; trace amounts of coca cultivation in the Amazon region, used for domestic consumption; government has a large-scale eradication program to control cannabis; important transshipment country for Bolivian, Colombian, and Peruvian cocaine headed for Europe; also used by traffickers as a way station for narcotics air transshipments between Peru and Colombia; upsurge in drug-related violence and weapons smuggling; important market for Colombian, Bolivian, and Peruvian cocaine; illicit narcotics proceeds are often laundered through the financial system; significant illicit financial activity in the Tri-Border Area (2008)

Largest cities of Brazil

These are the 50 largest cities of Brazil ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population
1 São Paulo 10,021,437
2 Rio de Janeiro 6,023,742
3 Salvador 2,711,903
4 Fortaleza 2,416,920
5 Belo Horizonte 2,373,255
6 Brasília 2,207,812
7 Curitiba 1,718,433
8 Manaus 1,598,227
9 Recife 1,478,118
10 Belém 1,407,737
11 Porto Alegre 1,372,763
12 Goiânia 1,171,209
13 Guarulhos 1,169,601
14 Campinas 1,031,573
15 Nova Iguaçu 1,002,129
16 Maceió 955,010
17 São Gonçalo 939,101
18 São Luís 917,252
19 Duque de Caxias 818,339
20 Natal 763,057
21 Teresina 744,526
22 São Bernardo do Campo 743,386
23 Campo Grande 729,164
24 Jaboatão 702,632
25 Osasco 677,869
26 Santo André 662,387
27 João Pessoa 650,896
28 Contagem 627,132
29 São José dos Campos 613,776
30 Uberlândia 563,545
31 Sorocaba 558,874
32 Ribeirão Prêto 551,278
33 Cuiabá 521,961
34 Aracaju 490,184
35 Feira de Santana 481,926
36 Londrina 471,836
37 Juiz de Fora 470,201
38 Belford Roxo 466,101
39 Joinville 461,312
40 Niterói 456,461
41 São João de Meriti 454,855
42 Ananindeua 433,956
43 Florianópolis 412,731
44 Santos 411,411
45 Ribeirão das Neves 406,840
46 Vila Velha 394,937
47 Serra 394,160
48 Diadema 390,641
49 Campos 387,422
50 Mauá 386,077