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Antigua and Barbuda country facts

Central America and the Caribbean Saint John's 91,295 inhabitants 443 sq km 206.27 inhabitants/sq km East Caribbean dollars (XCD) population evolution



The Siboney were the first people to inhabit the islands of Antigua and Barbuda in 2400 B.C., but Arawak Indians populated the islands when COLUMBUS landed on his second voyage in 1493. Early Spanish and French settlements were succeeded by an English colony in 1667. Slavery, established to run the sugar plantations on Antigua, was abolished in 1834. The islands became an independent state within the British Commonwealth of Nations in 1981.



Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-southeast of Puerto Rico

Geographic coordinates

17 03 N, 61 48 W

Area (sq km)

total: 442.6 sq km (Antigua 280 sq km; Barbuda 161 sq km)
land: 442.6 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Redonda, 1.6 sq km

Area - comparative (sq km)

2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries (km)

0 km

Coastline (km)

153 km

Maritime claims

territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation


mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands, with some higher volcanic areas

Elevation extremes (m)

lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: Boggy Peak 402 m

Natural resources

NEGL; pleasant climate fosters tourism

Land use (%)

arable land: 9.09%
permanent crops: 2.27%
other: 88.64% (2011)

Irrigated land (sq km)

1.3 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources (cu km)

0.05 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) ()

total: 0.01 cu km/yr (63%/21%/15%)
per capita: 97.67 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards

hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October); periodic droughts

Environment - current issues

water management - a major concern because of limited natural freshwater resources - is further hampered by the clearing of trees to increase crop production, causing rainfall to run off quickly

Environment - international agreements

party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note

Antigua has a deeply indented shoreline with many natural harbors and beaches; Barbuda has a large western harbor

People and Society


noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)
adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Ethnic groups (%)

black 91%, mixed 4.4%, white 1.7%, other 2.9% (2001 census)

Languages (%)

English (official), local dialects

Religions (%)

Protestant 76.4% (Anglican 25.7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%), Roman Catholic 10.4%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8% (2001 census)


91,295 (July 2014 est.)   evolution and prospects (1950-2100)

Age structure (%)

0-14 years: 24.3% (male 11,289/female 10,932)
15-24 years: 16.8% (male 7,588/female 7,723)
25-54 years: 42.6% (male 17,789/female 21,137)
55-64 years: 8.9% (male 3,694/female 4,441)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,886/female 3,816) (2014 est.)

Age structure in Antigua and Barbuda

Median age (years)

total: 31.1 years
male: 29.4 years
female: 32.6 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate (%)

1.25% (2014 est.)

Birth rate (births/1,000 population)

15.94 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Death rate (deaths/1,000 population)

5.7 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Net migration rate (migrant(s)/1,000 population)

2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)

Urbanization (%)

urban population: 29.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population

SAINT JOHN'S (capital) 27,000 (2011)

Sex ratio (male(s)/female)

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.84 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Infant mortality rate (deaths/1,000 live births)

total: 13.29 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 15.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth (years)

total population: 76.12 years
male: 74.04 years
female: 78.3 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate (children born/woman)

2.03 children born/woman (2014 est.)

Health expenditures (% of GDP)

5.9% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density (physicians/1,000 population)

0.17 physicians/1,000 population (1999)

Hospital bed density (beds/1,000 population)

2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source (% of population)

improved: urban: 97.9% of population
rural: 97.9% of population
total: 97.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 2.1% of population
rural: 2.1% of population
total: 2.1% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access (% of population)

improved: urban: 91.4% of population
rural: 91.4% of population
total: 91.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 8.6% of population
rural: 8.6% of population
total: 8.6% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate (%)


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS


HIV/AIDS - deaths


Obesity - adult prevalence rate (%)

25.6% (2008)

Education expenditures (% of GDP)

2.4% of GDP (2009)

Literacy (%)

definition: age 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling
total population: 99%
male: 98.4%
female: 99.4% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education) (years)

total: 14 years
male: 13 years
female: 15 years (2012)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24 (%)

total: 19.9%
male: 18.4%
female: 21.6% (2001)


Country name

conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Antigua and Barbuda

Government type

constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government and a Commonwealth realm


name: Saint John's
geographic coordinates: 17 07 N, 61 51 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions

6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*, Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter, Saint Philip


1 November 1981 (from the UK)

National holiday

Independence Day (National Day), 1 November (1981)


several previous; latest presented 31 July 1981, effective 31 October 1981 (Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional Order 1981) (2011)

Legal system

common law based on the English model

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch

chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Louisse LAKE-TACK (since 17 July 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Gaston BROWNE (since 13 June 2014)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister
elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general

Legislative branch

bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 seats; members appointed by the governor general) and the House of Representatives (17 seats; members are elected by proportional representation to serve five-year terms)
elections: House of Representatives - last held on 12 June 2014 (next to be held in 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party - ALP 56.4% UPP 42%; seats by party - ALP 14, UPP 3

Judicial branch

highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Antigua and Barbuda; the ECSC - headquartered on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; 2 High Court judges reside on Antigua and Barbuda
note - Antigua and Barbuda replaced the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London as the final appellate court; also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice
judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Chief Justice appointed by the Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62
subordinate courts: Industrial Court; Magistrates' Courts

Political parties and leaders

Antigua Labor Party or ALP [Gaston BROWNE]
Barbuda People's Movement or BPM [Trevor WALKER]
Barbuda People's Movement for Change [Arthur NIBBS]
Barbudans for a Better Barbuda [Ordrick SAMUEL]
United Progressive Party or UPP [W. Baldwin SPENCER] (a coalition of three parties - Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement or ACLM, Progressive Labor Movement or PLM, United National Democratic Party or UNDP)

Political pressure groups and leaders

Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [Wigley GEORGE]
People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]

International organization participation


Diplomatic representation in the US

chief of mission: Ambassador Deborah Mae LOVELL (since 8 March 2005)
chancery: 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016
telephone: [1] (202) 362-5122
FAX: [1] (202) 362-5525
consulate(s) general: Miami, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US

the US does not have an embassy in Antigua and Barbuda; the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda

Flag description

red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band; the sun symbolizes the dawn of a new era, black represents the African heritage of most of the population, blue is for hope, and red is for the dynamism of the people; the "V" stands for victory; the successive yellow, blue, and white coloring is also meant to evoke the country's tourist attractions of sun, sea, and sand

National anthem

name: "Fair Antigua, We Salute Thee"
lyrics/music: Novelle Hamilton RICHARDS/Walter Garnet Picart CHAMBERS
note: adopted 1967; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, "God Save the Queen" serves as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)


Economy - overview

Tourism continues to dominate Antigua and Barbuda's economy, accounting for nearly 60% of GDP and 40% of investment. The dual-island nation's agricultural production is focused on the domestic market and constrained by a limited water supply and a labor shortage stemming from the lure of higher wages in tourism and construction. Manufacturing comprises enclave-type assembly for export with major products being bedding, handicrafts, and electronic components. Prospects for economic growth in the medium term will continue to depend on tourist arrivals from the US, Canada, and Europe and potential damages from natural disasters. After taking office in 2004, the SPENCER government adopted an ambitious fiscal reform program and was successful in reducing its public debt-to-GDP ratio from approximately 130% in 2010 to 89% in 2012. In 2009, Antigua's economy was severely hit by the global economic crisis and suffered from the collapse of its largest private sector employer, a steep decline in tourism, a rise in debt, and a sharp economic contraction between 2009-11. Antigua has not yet returned to its pre-crisis growth levels.

GDP (purchasing power parity)

$1.61 billion (2013 est.)
$1.583 billion (2012 est.)
$1.558 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate)

$1.22 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate (%)

1.7% (2013 est.)
1.6% (2012 est.)
-3% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP)

$18,400 (2013 est.)
$18,100 (2012 est.)
$17,800 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP - composition, by sector of origin (%)

agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 16.4%
services: 81.4% (2013 est.)

Labor force

30,000 (1991)

Labor force - by occupation (%)

agriculture: 7%
industry: 11%
services: 82% (1983)

Unemployment rate (%)

11% (2001 est.)

Population below poverty line (%)


Household income or consumption by percentage share (%)

lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%


revenues: $239.5 million
expenditures: $248.7 million (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues (% of GDP)

19.6% of GDP (2012 est.)

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-) (% of GDP)

-0.8% of GDP (2012 est.)

Public debt (% of GDP)

89% of GDP (2012 est.)
130% of GDP (2010 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices) (%)

3% (2013 est.)
3.4% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate (%)

6.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
6.5% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate (%)

10.3% (31 December 2013 est.)
10.13% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money

$213 million (31 December 2013 est.)
$205.2 million (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money

$1.044 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.033 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of domestic credit

$1.111 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
$1.111 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Agriculture - products

cotton, fruits, vegetables, bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane; livestock


tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household appliances)

Industrial production growth rate (%)

1% (2013 est.)

Current account balance

-$164.8 million (2013 est.)
-$78.5 million (2012 est.)


$55 million (2013 est.)
$56.7 million (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities (%)

petroleum products, bedding, handicrafts, electronic components, transport equipment, food and live animals


$340.8 million (2013 est.)
$402.7 million (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities (%)

food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals, oil

External debt ($)

$441.2 million (31 December 2012)
$458 million (June 2010)

Exchange rates

Currency converter
East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar -
2.7 (2013 est.)
2.7 (2012 est.)
2.7 (2010 est.)
2.7 (2009)

Fiscal year

1 April - 31 March


Electricity - production (kWh)

115 million kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - consumption (kWh)

107 million kWh (2010 est.)

Electricity - exports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - imports (kWh)

0 kWh (2012 est.)

Electricity - installed generating capacity (kW)

27,000 kW (2010 est.)

Electricity - from fossil fuels (% of total installed capacity)

100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from nuclear fuels (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Electricity - from other renewable sources (% of total installed capacity)

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)

Crude oil - production (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2012 est.)

Crude oil - exports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - imports (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Crude oil - proved reserves (bbl)

0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)

Refined petroleum products - production (bbl/day)

0 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - consumption (bbl/day)

5,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)

Refined petroleum products - exports (bbl/day)

240 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Refined petroleum products - imports (bbl/day)

4,790 bbl/day (2010 est.)

Natural gas - production (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - consumption (cu m)

0 cu m (2010 est.)

Natural gas - exports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - imports (cu m)

0 cu m (2011 est.)

Natural gas - proved reserves (cu m)

0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy (Mt)

731,600 Mt (2011 est.)


Telephones - main lines in use

35,000 (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular

179,800 (2012)

Telephone system

general assessment: good automatic telephone system
domestic: fixed-line teledensity roughly 40 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is some 200 per 100 persons
international: country code - 1-268; landing points for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) and the Global Caribbean Network (GCN) submarine cable systems with links to other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the Virgin Islands country facts" data-cl-code="VGB">British Virgin Islands to Trinidad; satellite earth stations - 2; tropospheric scatter to Saba (Netherlands) and Guadeloupe (France) (2011)

Broadcast media

state-controlled Antigua and Barbuda Broadcasting Service (ABS) operates 1 TV station; multi-channel cable TV subscription services are available; ABS operates 1 radio station; roughly 15 radio stations, some broadcasting on multiple frequencies (2007)

Internet country code


Internet hosts

11,532 (2012)

Internet users

65,000 (2009)



3 (2013)

Airports - with paved runways

total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways

total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)

Roadways (km)

total: 1,170 km
paved: 386 km
unpaved: 784 km (2011)

Merchant marine

total: 1,257
by type: bulk carrier 49, cargo 753, carrier 6, chemical tanker 4, container 407, liquefied gas 12, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 17, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 1,215 (Albania 1, Colombia 1, Denmark 20, Estonia 10, Germany 1094, Greece 4, Iceland 10, Latvia 16, Lithuania 3, Mexico 1, Netherlands 17, Norway 9, NZ 2, Poland 2, Russia 3, Switzerland 7, Turkey 7, UK 1, US 7) (2010)

Ports and terminals

major seaport(s): Saint John's


Military branches

Ministry of National Security, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force (includes Antigua and Barbuda Coast Guard) (2012)

Military service age and obligation (years of age)

18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Governor-General has powers to call up men for national service and set the age at which they could be called up (2012)

Manpower available for military service

males age 16-49: 21,141
females age 16-49: 24,056 (2010 est.)

Manpower fit for military service

males age 16-49: 17,676
females age 16-49: 19,960 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually

male: 806
female: 799 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international


Illicit drugs

considered a minor transshipment point for narcotics bound for the US and Europe; more significant as an offshore financial center

Largest cities of Antigua and Barbuda

These are the 50 largest cities of Antigua and Barbuda ordered based on their number of inhabitants.

# City Population